Marine Sciences and Oceanography in Mozambique
Introduction: Coastal Resources Utilization and Development
Mozambique’s fisheries resources are mostly located in two major shelves: the Sofala Bank in the center and the Delagoa Bight in the south, as well as in the bays. The major resources include: shallow water shrimp (in Sofala Bank), deep water crustacean (on the slope), scad and mackerel (Sofala Bank and Delagoa Bight), and demersal fish in the southern and northern regions. In the coast region there are large artisanal fisheries, which include the mollusks and form the basis of subsistence for several local populations.
The fisheries sector employs 50,000 to 60,000 people, and its contribution to the economy is substantial; it represents about 40 percent of total export earnings. The estimated potential of fish in Mozambique is about 310,000 tons. Recorded amount of marine fish at the landings was about 32,000 tons in 1980, about 80,000 tons in 1980, and about 120,000 tons in 1992. The artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries account for more than 50 percent of the total fish production. The most valuable fishery resource is the shallow water shrimp and its bycatch, deepwater shrimp, scad, and mackerel (Table 1). These resources represented about 54 percent of the total export in 1993. The shallow water shrimp alone contributed about US$20 million in 1979-80.
The current production of shallow water shrimp is about 7,000 tons per year. Unfortunately, in spite of restrictions on the fishing effort, this resource shows signs of overexploitation in Sofala Bank, where most of this resource is located. The catch yields are decreasing (Figure 1). Environmental factors, such as the artificial Zambezi flow regime brought by the Cahora Bassa dam activity, may also contribute to the reduction in the availability of the shrimp in Sofala Bank (Hoguane, 1997).
Other resources that are overexploited are those located in the Bays of Maputo and Inhambane. The government policy is to encourage the fishing of other resources apart from the traditional fishing areas. Scad and mackerel production stopped in 1990 because of the fall of the major fishing company, owned jointly by Mozambique and former Soviet Union governments. As a result the resource is now under-exploited and available for new fishing licensing.
Central Mozambique offers excellent conditions for prawn culture. Maputo is another area where it is possible to develop shrimp culture. This activity is currently being promoted for investment.
The fresh water resources are mostly located in Lake Niassa and in the Cahora Bassa reservoir. The annual recorded catches are about 30,000 tons, although the estimated potential is about 90,000 tons.
Policies and Institutional Framework
There are several national and regional institutions dealing entirely or partially with marine affairs. The province is the lowest authority level for most of the institutions. There is no single institution responsible for all marine affairs. Coordination among institutions has always been an issue of concern within the government and for the public. Thus a number of inter-institutional coordinating committees were created to address issues that transcend the mandate of any single institution. The main institutions dealing with marine affairs are listed in Table 2.
Eduardo Mondlane University
In Mozambique there are three parastatal higher education institutions: Eduardo Mondlane University, the Pedagogic University and the International Relation Institute; and a number of private universities and polytechnics. These universities award the Licenciatura degree (a degree equivalent to the British B.Sc. Honors) in social and natural sciences, and in various field of engineering.
Eduardo Mondlane University is the only one offering courses with substantial training in marine sciences. The Pedagogic University graduates students in general biology, who may go on to employment in fisheries or environmental sectors.
The Faculty of Sciences of Eduardo Mondlane University comprises departments of mathematics and computer science, biological sciences, geology, physics, chemistry and basic sciences. The first five departments provide degree courses in their fields of competence. At the same time these departments are responsible for teaching natural science subjects and mathematics and computer science to other faculties of the university, such as engineering, agronomy, medicine, veterinary science, arts, and architecture. The Basic Science Department was created to bridge the gap between the levels of students coming from secondary schools and the required entry levels at the university. The program offers one semester courses for students in the sciences, engineering, and agronomy. The Faculty of Sciences does not provide postgraduate courses so far.
Presently the total number of students enrolled in different courses offered by the Faculty is about 500, distributed as follows: 150 in mathematics and computer science, 180 in biological sciences, 70 in geology, 50 in physics and 50 in chemistry. The actual number of students in other departments being assisted by the Faculty of Sciences is about 4,000.
The lecturing staff of the Faculty comprises 118 people, of which 79 are Mozambicans. Of the Mozambican lecturers, 6 have Ph.D. degrees and 8 have M.Sc. degrees. A significant number of the remainder is undergoing training leading to doctorates or masters degrees, in a sandwich model or in a full-time program abroad.
There are three main departments at Eduardo Mondlane University offering lecture topics in marine sciences-related subjects: The Department of Biology, the Department of Physics, and the Department of Geology. The Department of Biology offers a degree course in ecology with a strong component of marine ecology. It had offered a course in management of aquatic resources, but this course is now interrupted. The Department of Physics offers a course in meteorology, with a subject in oceanography. Research topics undertaken by the university in the field of marine sciences include: marine botany, marine zoology, marine mammals, physical oceanography, and marine geology.
The Faculty of Science runs a research station at Inhaca Island, in Maputo Bay. The station has a small boat for research in shallow water tidal inlets and in Maputo Bay, and laboratories for biological/ichthyological research.
The university is in the process of revising the curriculum to adjust to current national development demands and to comply with international standards. A UNESCO Chair in Marine Sciences was established, and a Center for Marine Sciences is planned as a part of the upgrading of the university.
Center for Coastal Zone Management
A Center for Coastal Zone Management is in the process of being established in Xai-Xai, in southern Mozambique. This institution will carry the tasks presently under the responsibility of the Unit for Coastal Zone Management of the Ministry of Coordination of Environmental Affairs, and it will undertake research and training in coastal zone management. Some of the specific tasks of this institution will include:
Protocols for cooperation in the use of the facilities of this center have been signed between Eduardo Mondlane University and the Ministry of Coordination of Environmental Affairs.
Institute for Fisheries Research
The Institute for Fisheries Research undertakes research on marine fisheries resources and freshwater fisheries. Some of the research topics carried out so far include: Inventory and mapping of the main fisheries resources, control of exploitation, performance of studies of environmental impacts of exploitation on fish resources, and evaluation of prawn culture potential. Recently the Institute has started surveys in artisanal fisheries.
The Institute offers conditions for on-the-job training in three areas, namely, fish stocks and assessment, aquaculture, and applied oceanography. It participates actively in the teaching and supervision of students at Eduardo Mondlane University, in the fields of oceanography, fisheries biology, and aquaculture. It has five labs where catch landings are collected and small research programs are conducted.
Research on fisheries resources dates from the 1960s, when the Portuguese colonial government established a lab in Maputo responsible for conducting marine biology, physical and chemical studies in Maputo Bay. In 1976 the Fisheries Research Services was established under the National Directorate for Fisheries. Its major tasks were to identify, map, and evaluate fish stocks of economic value. The research was extend over the whole Mozambican Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
In 1988 the Institute for Fisheries Research was established within the State Secretariat for Fisheries under Ministerial Decree No. 75/88. The main objective of the institute was to ensure rational exploitation of the fishery resources within the Mozambican EEZ. Its main tasks were to:
Since 1994, and as a result of the new government structure born out from the first general election, the Institute is under the Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries.
A Center for Marine Sciences and Oceanography is planned at Eduardo Mondlane University, under the Faculty of Science. The main objectives of the center would be to carry out multidisciplinary research and contribute to teaching in the various fields of marine sciences. It would bring all the various aspects of the marine sciences under one roof. The specific objectives of the center would be to:
National Policy and Development Plans
Two of the major priorities of the Mozambican government are: (i) revitalization of the economy and (ii) alleviation of poverty, without decreasing the national capital stock, i.e., development strategy should be harmonized with ecologically sound management. Of particular interest is the coastal zone, where the government prioritizes a number of activities related to integrated coastal zone management. Specifically, the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Program states that coastal management will be based on coordination among the relevant stakeholders, and with their full engagement and approval. The main issues for the program are (i) fisheries, (ii) coastal and marine ecosystem management, (iii) coastal and marine protection (iv) marine parks and (v) tourism. The program also defines activities for the short, medium, and long term. Some of the priority tasks include:
In the Republic of Mozambique there are several laws related to resource use. The most significant are:
In addition to these more broadly based acts there are a number of specific environmental regulations, including the Farming and Hunting of Wildlife Act (1970), Regulation of Foreign Fishing Boats (1978), establishment of reserves in all parts of the country, and acts to control shrimp fishing, the use of processed wood and ivory, and general hunting of wild animals. See Table 3 for additional samples of environmental legislation.
The MARPOL 73/78 convention on marine pollution is in the process of being ratified. SAFMAR, the marine safety authority, hosted an IMO (International Maritime Organization) consultant mission in Mozambique. The terms of the consultant mission were, inter alia, to help Mozambican institutions establish technical and administrative mechanisms for ratification, implementation, and enforcement of the convention. Subsequently, a multi-institutional committee was created, and now functions under SAFMAR.
International Cooperation in Marine Affairs
Mozambique is a member of the Portuguese Speaking Countries. Although it was never colonized by Britain, Mozambique was also admitted as a member of the Commonwealth Countries because of its geographical situation, i.e., being surrounded by former British colonies. Consequently Mozambique integrates the Commonwealth technical and sub-group committees of specialized fields, including those related to fisheries and marine resource exploitation.
Mozambique is also a member of SADC (Southern Africa Development Community), and is represented by the Fisheries Research Institute, which participates actively in the SADC Fishing Committee.
Mozambique participates actively in UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) activities, represented by the Institute for Hydrography and the Institute for Fisheries Research. SAFMAR represents Mozambique in the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and the Institute for Meteorology represents the country in the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
Mozambique currently has cooperative programs in marine sciences with the following institutions:
Present and Future Research Orientation
Research projects are mainly oriented for training people at masters and Ph.D. levels. For example, the Department of Physics conducted a survey in Sofala Bank, the main fishing ground of Mozambique, during 1998. One British M.Sc. student and one Mozambican junior scientist were trained during the survey under the supervision of both British and Mozambican coordinators. The main focus of the survey was to determine the optics properties of fresh water from the Zambezi River and map the river plume over the shelf. Research on the physical properties of mangrove swamps was conducted. A model was built and we are now in the stage of testing the validity of the model in other swamps.
The main research related to fisheries undertaken so far include:
Most of these research efforts have been undertaken using "ships of opportunity," for the country does not have a suitable research vessel or using fishing vessels.
Some additional examples of research being undertaken in other departments can be found in Table 4.
Mozambique, being a poor country, cannot afford to do research just for the sake of doing science. The research topics should be relevant and contribute to overcoming the main challenges imposed for the alleviation of poverty and development.
The University of Eduardo Mondlane, as the leading academic/research institution, has a major role to play in this exercise. The main university task is building capacity for teaching and research on coastal and marine processes for sustainable use of natural resources, protection of the environment, and maintenance of biodiversity.
The main problems threatening the sustainability of these resources are:
These problems have severe consequences on the environment and socio-economy. They can be of transbounday nature, and often have feedback implications. Pollution, mostly resulting from use of agricultural chemicals, may have severe environmental implications. Storms cause the destruction of coastal protection (erosion) and of the corals and seagrass beds. Destructive human activities in the coastal zone include over-exploitation and misuse of the resources (vegetation, corals, and seagrasses), such as over-grazing and the use of non-environmentally sound tourism practices. Over-exploitation of resources is primarily driven by food needs and high income demand. Mozambique is one of the poorest country in the world, and most of the people live in absolute poverty. The need to improve the critical economic situation compels people (unwillingly) to put more pressure on the resources.
Socio-economic consequences related to marine and coastal problems are immense considering that a significant percentage of the population, about 60 percent, live in the coastal zone, depending on the resources available. Indeed the economy of the country as a whole depends largely on marine and coastal resources.
Mozambique -- recognizing the importance of coastal zones and their resources in the overall development of the country, conscious of the threats imposed by both man and natural processes to the resources, aware of the challenges for sustainable use of these resources due, in part, to the conflicting interventions in the coastal zones and also to our lack of understanding of the ecosystem structure and functioning, and recognizing further the transboundary nature of the issue -- has invited the member states of Africa to engage in discussion toward the adoption of an integrated strategy for sustainable management of the coastal zone. This process is known as the Pan-African Conference on Sustainable Integrated Coastal Management (PACSICOM).
The first meeting of PACSICOM, held in Maputo in July 1998, represented an appropriate window of opportunity for intergovernmental dialogue, as well as regional and international cooperation vis-à-vis Africa’s marine environment. During that meeting the African states were represented at ministerial level, and committed themselves to join the effort for sustainable development of coastal and marine resources. PACSICOM emphasized:
Further, international treaty obligations, such as the UN Convention on Biodiversity, the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, Agenda 21 on sustainable development at the Rio Summit, and the Oslo and Paris conventions, place the responsibility on all member states, including Mozambique, to document, conduct research, and manage effectively the seas within their own EEZs.
Research and monitoring of coastal processes contribute to the fulfillment of international obligations, particularly those underlined in the PACSICOM process, and to addressing important economic and quality-of-life issues. Moreover, these fundamental research efforts are relevant to other places in the region, thus knowledge so acquired is exportable.
Proposed Research Topics
Some of the research topics proposed to address the issue of coastal and marine resources management are as follows:
Coastal processes monitoring
Tropical cyclones occur in northern Mozambique at least once a year. The strong winds combined with the high tides create anomalous high water levels or storm surges. These cause massive flooding in low-lying areas. Mozambique has several coastal resources that can be affected negatively by the storm surges: harbors, tourism, fishing centers, coral reefs, and marine ecosystems.
The storm surges can be studied/monitored by meteorological data obtained at Mauritius, Seychelles , Madagascar, Comoros Islands, Zanzibar, and Mozambican coastal stations. Water level observations can be obtained from the tidal gauge stations in Mozambique. Time series of cyclones and the respective tide/storm surges could be studied, and their spatial patterns described.
Alternatively, offshore observational buoys can be used. Three monitoring buoys could be placed as follows: one in southern, one in central, and the other in northern Mozambique. These buoys could record oceanographic as well as meteorological data that could be used for global climate change monitoring, and it could be a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Buoys may be obtained at relatively cheap cost, for the platforms may be built locally.
Wave action and coastal erosion
Coastal erosion is an issue of major concern in Mozambique. The causes of erosion vary from place to place. In most cases there is a combination of the effects of man and natural processes. Damming the river, and so causing a sediment deficit in the coastal zone, and practicing agriculture and tourism on the coastal dunes are among the anthropological effects. Floods, storms, waves, and along shore drift are among natural processes. The research on coastal erosion should be aimed at the identification and description of the causes of erosion, as to help in the adoption of the sustainable management measures.
Coastal dynamics and pollutant distribution
The open sea pollution in Mozambique is not yet a major problem, apart from the Katina-P case. Near the main urban centers such as Maputo and Beira, however, the amount of pollution, e.g., untreated sewage, may be a problem. Knowing the circulation pattern might help in the identification of potential sites for pollution abatement and hence help in the management of the environment.
Marine optics and coastal productivity
Coastal productivity is often related to the import of land-based nutrients, through the rivers. The productivity of the shelf would thus be related to the amount of nutrients discharged by the rivers and to their distribution over the shelf. River plumes have, usually, a strong optical sign. This opens the possibility of using outer space optical sensors to map the plume and correlate with the nutrient import to the coastal water and hence, correlate with coastal productivity. This may have large application in management.
Shrimp abundance at the Sofala Bank and Zambezi River regulation
The most important fishery along the Mozambican coast is the shallow water fishery at the Sofala Bank. It is well known that abundance of this shrimp is heavily influenced by the environment, especially the Zambezi River flow, which is regulated. Hypothesis are being formed that include other environmental parameters such as currents, wind, precipitation, and tides in the variability of this stock.
Data from the relevant national institutes combined with observations of river discharge could be used in this kind of study. Simple statistical models could be tested to investigate the impact of the environment on the shrimp catch. Experiments with a physical model to study how variations in river flow influence the circulation in the area could be performed. Field observations of the shrimp might be undertaken to map behavior during the various stages of the one-year life-cycle.
Sea surface temperature and precipitation in Mozambique: How important is the Mozambican current?
Variations of ocean temperatures could be studied/monitored using satellite images. This will indicate variations in the transport in the Mozambican current. Patterns in precipitation could be studied to see if there is correlation with the changes in sea surface temperatures. Year to year variations could be studied and compared to the El Niño southern oscillation cycle.
The capacity of Maputo Bay as a sewage recipient
Hydrographic and current measurements in Maputo Bay are occasionally taken by the Institute for Fisheries Research and the University of Eduardo Mondlane in Maputo. These data may serve as a basis for a model to simulate the current systems in the Bay, and to calculate mass heat and salt budgets. Such a model could be used to study the capacity of the bay as a recipient for pollution.
Based on the model results field studies could be undertaken in specific positions and periods to increase the reliability of the model results. Such field experiments could be done in cooperation with relevant national institutes.
Tides along the Mozambican coast
Some tidal measurements exist along the Mozambican coast. In addition, there exist occasionally open ocean tidal measurements, as well as current measurements. These could be implemented in a model so as to predict tidal currents. This is of particular interest for navigation in the biggest harbors, but also for existing and planned infrastructures along the coast.
Radiation climatology of regions
Incoming short-wave radiation is the main component of the energy budget of the ground and the driving force of evapotranspiration and growth of plants. Time series and spatial variation of the incoming short-wave radiation could be studied based on existing long-term data of cloud cover and by use of METEOSAT. Any trend or year-to-year variations could be related to respectively global climatic changes and El Niño.
The effect of different scenarios of climate change on water budget and growth climate
Variations in time and space of the different meteorological parameters in a region are mostly due to variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation pattern. The scenarios of climate change due to increased greenhouse effect that were published in recent years indicate a reduction of precipitation of 1-2 mm/day and an increase in air temperature in the range of 1-2 degrees C in southern Africa. The project should include studies of the relations between the large-scale circulation systems or weather types and the pattern of the different meteorological parameters in the region. Based on scenarios of changes of large-scale circulation pattern the local changes of the different climatic parameters could then be estimated.
Air pollution in big cities
The air pollution in these cities comes from numerous ground sources that are more or less variable. Variations of air pollution are therefore dependent on variations in diluting processes due to variations of atmospheric conditions. We want to study the relation between the large-scale atmospheric conditions and patterns of air pollution of some of the most polluted cities. The project should also include studies of wet and dry depositions of this pollution in adjacent rural regions.
Human and Institutional Capacity Building Needs
There is in Mozambique a lack of skilled personnel and diversity in training specialties. Most of the fewer-skilled personnel are in the field of marine biology, where we have only two physical oceanographers, one marine geologist, and a few aquaculturists. Hence there is a need to train people in other fields of marine science and marine biology.
The level of expertise is also an issue of major concern; there are very few masters and Ph.D. level people. Even at the university few lecturers have even an M.Sc. degree.
One of the country's top priorities is to guarantee sustainable exploitation of the resources. This requires a sound and profound knowledge of the issues that play major role in the availability of these resources. Hence, the university should be prepared to provide better teaching and good research. The university should also be helped in the establishment of the planned Center for Marine Science, a development that will constitute an important foothold for the advancement of marine science in the country.
The need for a postgraduate degree course
A regional masters degree in environmental sciences for sustainable use of natural resources is proposed to be established at Eduardo Mondlane University, under the regional Chair in Marine Sciences and Oceanography. The M.Sc. should include specializations in coastal processes and applied oceanography with a focus on the distribution and availability of natural resources, protection of the environment, and maintenance of biodiversity.
With the limited financial and human resources of Eduardo Mondlane University it is not possible to run the course fully with university staff alone. Therefore it is proposed that in the beginning a split M.Sc. degree be run in cooperation with a university abroad (University of Bergen), where staff from that university could come and run a few courses, and initially the degrees could be awarded by that university.
The M.Sc. students should be recruited from the researchers employed at various research, government, and industry institutions and from the demonstrators at the university. The course is aimed at candidates that have a degree in any of the earth sciences.
The M.Sc. should be open to qualified candidates throughout the region (both students and lecturers). We recognize that every country would like to build its own capacity. However, by sharing resources we can avoid duplication in the region and save considerable effort. It may also be possible to define areas of specialization within the region. For instance: South Africa is more interested, and has already developed skills, in research in deep ocean issues. Mozambique is more interested in estuarine, coastal and shelf seas, and has some skills in coastal dynamics, coastal ecology, and marine culture. Tanzania may take the lead in mangrove ecology, marine zoology, and perhaps in marine geology. Namibia is more interested in fisheries research, and is taking the lead for this area within SADC.
The thematic areas of teaching and research should cover the subjects of: coastal dynamics, marine optics, water masses and general circulation, nutrient distribution and primary production, plankton and zooplankton, and chemical and pollutant distribution. Many of these topics are inter-linked. Therefore, the present proposal is interdisciplinary.
The need for an oceanographic laboratory for coastal processes
A relatively low-cost oceanographic laboratory can be built based on traditional equipment, i.e., manual methods for analyzing nutrients, oxygen, chlorophyll, and primary production. The equipment to be acquired should include water sampling on board, a laboratory salinometer for high-precision salinity determinations and self-recording instruments for currents, tides, waves, and solar radiation.
Members of university staff should undertake both coursework and laboratory training abroad to be able to run the lab. The training should include introductory handling of advanced equipment such as auto-analyzers for nutrients including ship-borne CTD and ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Meter). The program may start with an inventory of the facilities available, at the moment, in the various departments of the university, in order to determine what should be purchased.
The need for a research vessel
Our understanding of nature depends largely on observations. What we are able to observe depends on the means we have to observe. In Mozambique, research done so far in coastal waters and in open seas have been conducted in ships of opportunity, i.e., according to the availability of occasional research vessels in the region. Often these research vessels were attached to research plans of their host institutions/countries, not always compatible to the local needs. This method has made planning and systematic monitoring rather difficult.
International treaty obligations place responsibility on Mozambique to document, conduct research, and manage effectively the seas within its own EEZ. Thus, research in our own shelf seas enables us to fulfill these obligations as well as to address important issues of economic and quality of life significance.
For these reasons there is a strong and urgent need for a medium-sized research vessel that would be suitable to operate safely in the shallow seas (about 10m deep) as well as in the open sea. The vessel should be used for research, monitoring, and servicing moorings. It should, therefore, be equipped and able to operate fishing gear such as trawls, drifting nets, longlines. It should be equipped with dry and wet labs for multidisciplinary analysis in the fields of oceanography (e.g., physical, biological, chemical, and geological oceanography). It should be able to deploy and collect mooring rigs. The research vessel could be used by different specialists and institutions within the country and in the region.
Chonguiça, E., 1997. Integrated coastal zone in Mozambique. In The Journey from Arusha to Seychelles - Successes and Failures of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in East Africa and Island States. O. Lindén & C. G. Lundin eds.
DAP, 1996. Fish catch statistics.
David, C., Motta, H., and Achimo, M., 1996. Vulnerability of coastal resources to climate changes in Mozambique: A call for integrated coastal zone management. (in press)
Gove, D., 1991. Marine Sciences in Mozambique. Proceedings of a workshop on tropical coastal lagoon ecosystems. Inhaca Island, Mozambique, December 3-5, 1991. pp 67-68.
Hoguane, A.M., 1997a. Hydrodynamics, Temperature and Salinity in Mangrove Swamps in Mozambique. A Ph.D. thesis. University of North Wales, Bangor, UK.
----------, 1997b. Shrimp Abundance and River Runoff in Sofala Bank - The Role Of Zambezi. Presented at the Workshop on Sustainable Development of the Cahora Bassa Dam and the Valley of Zambezi.
MICOA, 1996. Programa Nacional de Gestão Ambiental. Ministério para coordenação da acção ambiental. pp 99.
Skagen, D.W., Palha de Sousa, L., and Pacule, H., 1997. The Industrial Shallow Water Fishery at Sofala Bank 1996-97. Instituto de Investigação Pesqueira, Maputo. Internal report.
Sociedade Terminal de Açucar, 1998. Statistics of the amount of sugar handled at the terminal of sugar in Maputo harbor in the period 1995-1997.
World Resources, 1996. The Urban Environment. In A Guide to the Global Environment 1996-97. A joint publication by the World Resources Institute, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank. New York: Oxford University Press.
LIST OF RELEVANT CONTACTS OF THE INSTITUTIONS AND PERSONS RELATED TO MARINE AFFAIRS IN MOZAMBIQUE
Fishery Research Institute
Eduardo Mondlane University (Marine Biological Station of Inhaca)
Eduardo Mondlane University (Dept. of Biological Sciences)
Eduardo Mondlane University (Faculty of Sciences)
Eduardo Mondlane University
Institute for Small Scale Fisheries Development
Institute for Hydrography and Navigation
Ministry for Environmental Co-ordination (Unit for Coastal Zone Management)Contact person: Mr. Alfredo Victor Massinga
Ministerio para Coordenação de Acção Ambiental
Unidade de Gestão Costeira
Av. Acordos de Lusaka 2115
P.O. Box 2020
Telephone: (258 1) 465843/48/51, (258 1) 466059/465708
Fax: (258 1) 465849
Fisheries Training Center of MatolaContact person: Mr. Joaquim Inácio Madeira: Director
Centro de Formação Pesqueira de Matola
P.O. Box 14
Telephone: (258 1) 450268
Fax: (258 1) 450269
Marine Safety AuthorityContact person: Eng. Eugénio J. Muianga: Director
Av. Marquês do Pombal No. 279
P.O. Box 4317
Telephone: (258 1) 42552/301963
Fax: (258 1) 424007
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