News: AAAS News & Notes
28 October 2004
Standing Our Ground Details Strategies to Protect Diversity
When the U.S. Supreme Court last year affirmed the value of diversity in higher education but struck down Michigan's use of race as a quantitative "plus factor" in undergraduate admissions, universities nationwide were left uncertain how to proceed. But Standing Our Ground, a new guidebook announced this month by the presidents of AAAS and the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, offers a new look at ways to protect diversity as it becomes increasingly essential to U.S. competitiveness, innovation, and security.
"As our world grows increasingly global, our national economy and our overall safety and well-being increasingly are dependent upon our capacity for innovation," said AAAS President Shirley Ann Jackson, president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York. "This is raising the value of diversity to American competitiveness." Noting the 50th anniversary this year of the Supreme Court's Brown vs. the Board of Education decision, which put an end to segregated classrooms, Jackson added that "we are impelled to redouble our efforts with new conviction and energy if we are to see the legacy of Brown unfold."
From the corporate perspective, diversity is essential, said Cathleen A. Barton, U.S. education manager for Intel. "Those who have been educated in a diverse setting are more likely to succeed in our global business and are more able to work with business partners, employees, and customers around the world," Barton said. "This is not a political issue for us. It's an issue of doing the right thing and an issue of serving the needs of our business and our industry."
Women and minorities now form "the underrepresented majority," Jackson said. The U.S. population grew over the past decade from 249 million to 281 million, with the minority population increasing 35% overall, whereas the non-Hispanic white population increased by only 3%, she said. With women making up 50% of the population at any given time, Jackson added, "the evidence of the new majority is clear."
Standing Our Ground: A Guidebook for STEM Educators in the Post-Michigan Era urges college and university leaders to specify diversity goals within their institutional missions, and offers a checklist of eight "design principles" for increasing minority participation in science and engineering. NACME President and CEO John Brooks Slaughter said that the intimidation tactics of special interest groups, "coupled with an absence of guidance or interpretation from those bodies that we would expect to provide that guidance," has had a "chilling effect" on diversity.
Slaughter's comments were echoed by report co-author Shirley Malcom, director of Education and Human Resources at AAAS. "Universities have been subjected to a campaign of intimidation so that a bunker mentality now prevails, despite the fact that targeted recruitment is still perfectly legal," said Malcom. Since the Michigan rulings, according to The Chronicle of Higher Education (19 March 2004), two private political groupsthe Center for Equal Opportunities and the American Civil Rights Institutehave sent some 1000 letters to colleges threatening to file complaints with the U.S. Office for Civil Rights. Further, the National Association of Scholars said on 23 March this year that it was sending letters to colleges in 20 states, demanding details on the use of racial and ethnic information.
History shows that eliminating targeted recruitment takes a heavy toll on campus diversity, Slaughter said. After the 1996 Hopwood case banned raced-based admissions in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, for example, these states' first-year enrollment of African Americans in medical schools dropped from 1528 in 1995 to 1423 in 1996, standing at 1394 by 2002. Similarly, the enrollment of Mexican Americans at the same medical schools declined from 535 in 1995 to 428 as of 2002, while the ranks of underrepresented minority graduates also dwindled, peaking at 2014 in 1994, but then falling to 1770 in 1997.
"While these numbers may seem like relatively small changes," Slaughter said, "given the very huge disparity that exists between the representation of these groups in the higher education setting and their presence in the overall population, they represent some significant erosion."
Efforts to "make sure that every relevant talent pool is fully tapped" are central to the AAAS mission, said association CEO Alan I. Leshner. The new AAAS-NACME report emerged from a recent conference sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
"There is no cookie-cutter approach" that will work in all settings, said report co-author Daryl E. Chubin, director of the AAAS Center for Advancing Science & Engineering Capacity. "We propose that universities take a program-by-program approach, and be mindful that race-neutral alternatives' are not required; they simply must be considered."
The report, also co-authored by former AAAS staffer Jolene Jesse of the National Science Foundation, is available online at www.aaas.org/standingourground.
Science and Health
Global Praise for AAAS Health Rights Manual
International health advocatesincluding the United Nations' special rapporteur on health rightsare giving favorable reviews to a manual published by AAAS that offers medical professionals, nongovernmental organizations, and other groups new tools to monitor the status of health rights in their countries.
Based on years of research and collaboration by the AAAS Science and Human Rights (SHR) program and the U.K.-based Commonwealth Medical Trust, the 180-page book explores the legal underpinnings for the right to health and the obligations of states to protect and advance the right.
It provides a detailed exploration into how health professionals and others can use indicators, benchmarks, and statistical data to monitor a government's performance.
SHR Director Audrey Chapman said the first copies of the manual were distributed in August to about 80 human rights professionals attending an academy at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands and to a like number who attended the annual conference of the International Federation of Health and Human Rights Organizations, also in Utrecht.
"Although built on firm scholarly foundations, this manual is impeccably practical and accessible," said Paul Hunt, the United Nations' special rapporteur on physical and mental health rights. "In recent years, the scope of the right to health has become clearer. The great challenge now is to apply the right to healthto operationalize itto make it real. As we approach this challenge, the manual will serve as an indispensable and unique tool."
Ravi Duggal, coordinator of the Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes, a health and human rights organization based in Mumbai, India, agreed that the manual will have immediate practical value.
"For NGOs working on health issues, the manual is an excellent resource book that will orient them to a human rights approach," Duggal said. "For human rights groups, it is a useful manual which will help them contextualize health rights. And for students of courses or training programs on health and health rights, it is a valuable reference manual."
The manual is available online at http://shr.aaas.org/pubs/rt_health/rt_health_manual.pdf.
While documents such as the Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution defined political and civil rights in the 18th century, health emerged as a right after the United Nations General Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.
Chapman said the manual was conceived as a way to establish measurable, quantifiable standards that could be used to assess whether a government is meeting its obligations related to the right to health among its constituents or is failing to do so. Because such standards have never before been developed, the book required five years of planning, research, and writing.
"The SHR program is dedicated to developing resources that apply scientific methods to human rights," Chapman said.
"Although people have talked about the importance of systematic approaches for monitoring human rights, particularly the use of indicators, for a long time, the work has been inadequate because of the complexity. To develop indicators, you have to know human rights, you have to know statistics .You need to be able to work with huge quantities of data."
Already, Chapman said, some of the approaches developed in the manual have been adopted by the United Nations' Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and by other organizations worldwide. At its meeting in Utrecht, the International Federation of Health and Human Rights Organizations adopted an action commending AAAS and the Commonwealth Medical Trust for development of the manual and recommending it to member organizations.
Joining AAAS and the Commonwealth Medical Trust as a co-publisher of the book is Human Rights Information and Documentation Systems, International (HURIDOCS), established in 1982 as a global network of organizations concerned with human rights information. The groups are seeking funding for a mass printing of the manual and translations into French and Spanish. Chapman said that the groups would also like to translate the volume into other languages, including Arabic.
Basking in the Light of Superstars
When the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded Nobel Prizes in science and medicine earlier this month, it continued what has become an unofficial traditionbestowing the world's most prestigious honor on members of AAAS.
Of the 182 Nobels awarded in those fields since 1978, 85 of themor 46.7%have been to past or current AAAS members. Of the eight scientists honored this year, six are members of the world's largest general science organization.
A pair of Americans won the 2004 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their research on the structure and organization of the human sense of smellRichard Axel, M.D., of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Columbia University in New York and Linda S. Buck, M.D., of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. Both are AAAS members.
Three U.S. scientists won the Nobel Prize for Physics for their research into how the smallest known pieces of matterquarksare bound together by strong force, or "color force"David J. Gross of the University of California, Santa Barbara; H. David Politzer of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena; and Frank Wilczek of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. Gross and Wilczek are AAAS members.
Three scientists who conducted trailblazing research into how the human body destroys unwanted proteins were awarded the Nobel Prize for ChemistryAaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko, both of Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa; and Irwin Rose of the University of California, Irvine. Both Ciechanover and Rose are members.
Elected as Fellows
In September, the AAAS Council elected 308 members as Fellows of AAAS. These individuals will be recognized for their contributions to science at the Fellows Forum to be held on 19 February 2005 during the AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, DC. The new Fellows will receive a certificate and a blue and gold rosette pin as a symbol of their distinguished accomplishments. Presented by section affiliation, they are:
Agriculture, Food, and Renewable Resources
James C. Carrington, Oregon State Univ. • Jorge Dubcovsky, Univ. of California, Davis • Kenneth E. Hammel, U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI • Pamela G. Marrone, AgraQuest, Davis, CA • Susan R. McCouch, Cornell Univ. • Albert G. Medvitz, Rio Vista, CA • James D. Murray, Univ. of California, Davis • Marion Nestle, New York Univ. • Ralph L. Obendorf, Cornell Univ. • Charles W. Rice, Kansas State Univ. • Ismail Serageldin, Library of Alexandria, Egypt • Catherine E. Woteki, Iowa State Univ. • David A. Zuberer, Texas A&M Univ., College Station
C. Owen Lovejoy, Kent State Univ. • Robert D. Martin, Field Museum, Chicago • Jane E. Phillips-Conroy, Washington Univ. • Richard Potts, National Museum of Natural History • Ian Tattersall, American Museum of Natural History • Bernard A. Wood, George Washington Univ. • Patricia Chapple Wright, State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook
Timothy Ferris, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Stamatios M. Krimigis, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Lab. • Carey Michael Lisse, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • Richard McCray, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder • C. Matt Mountain, Gemini Observa-tory, Hilo, HI
Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences
Paul J. Crutzen, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany • A. Russell Flegal, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz • Michael J. Prather, Univ. of California, Irvine • Eugene M. Rasmusson, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • Jorge L. Sarmiento, Princeton Univ. • Gerald M. Stokes, Joint Global Change Research Institute, College Park, MD • Norbert Untersteiner, Univ. of Washington • Carl Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sankar L. Adhya, National Cancer Institute • Bonnie L. Bassler, Princeton Univ. • Philip N. Benfey, Duke Univ. • Joy M. Bergelson, Univ. of Chicago • Robert E. Blankenship, Arizona State Univ. • Elizabeth L. Brainerd, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst • Ronald R. Breaker, Yale Univ. • David Ray Burgess, Boston College • JoAnn M. Burkholder, North Carolina State Univ. • Tzen-Yuh Chiang, Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan • George W. Cox, Biosphere and Biosurvival, Santa Fe, NM • Jeffery L. Dangl, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill • Richard H. Ebright, Rutgers Univ. • Elliot L. Elson, Washington Univ. • Susan L. Forsburg, Univ. of Southern California • Claire M. Fraser, Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, MD • Gayle J. Fritz, Washington Univ. • Candace E. Galen, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia • Barry Ganetzky, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Patricia A. Gowaty, Univ. of Georgia • Yusof Awni Hannun, Medical Univ. of South Carolina • Joseph Heitman, Duke Univ. • Charles Russell Hille, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Tuan-Hua David Ho, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan • Erin Irish, Univ. of Iowa • Steven E. Jacobsen, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Robert L. Jeanne, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Univ. of Missouri, St. Louis • Linda M. Kohn, Univ. of Toronto • Robert Landick, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Harris A. Lewin, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana • Emmanuel Liscum, III, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia • Curtis M. Lively, Indiana Univ., Bloomington • Timothy M. Lohman, Washington Univ. • William John Lucas, Univ. of California, Davis • Paul M. Macdonald, Univ. of Texas, Austin • Gregory B. Martin, Cornell Univ. • Joel W. Martin, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County • Lawrence E. Mathes, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Richard L. Mayden, St. Louis Univ. • John F. McDonald, Univ. of Georgia • Lina Marie Obeid, Medical Univ. of South Carolina • Michael C. Ostrowski, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Massimo Pigliucci, State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook • Peter H. Quail, Univ. of California, Berkeley • David C. Queller, Rice Univ. • Hershel Raff, Medical College of Wisconsin • Marjorie L. Reaka-Kudla, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • Benjavan Rerkasem, Chiang Mai Univ., Thailand • Eric J. Richards, Washington Univ. • Amy Rossman, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD • Steven L. Salzberg, Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, MD • Daniel R. Schoenberg, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • David W. Severson, Univ. of Notre Dame • Thomas J. Silhavy, Princeton Univ. • Christopher Roland Somerville, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA • Victoria L. Sork, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Roger M. Spanswick, Cornell Univ. • Steven Spiker, North Caro-lina State Univ. • David B. Stern, Cornell Univ. • Joan E. Strassmann, Rice Univ. • C. Richard Tracy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno • John T. Trumble, Univ. of California, Riverside • John Charles Walker, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia • Linda L. Walling, Univ. of California, Riverside • Altaf A. Wani, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Caroline C. Whitacre, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Kenneth H. Wolfe, Univ. of Dublin • Chung-I Wu, Univ. of Chicago • Grace Wyngaard, James Madison Univ. • Shozo Yokoyama, Emory Univ. • Jian-Kang Zhu, Univ. of California, Riverside
Vartkess Ara Apkarian, Univ. of California, Irvine • Jeffrey Aubé, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence • Robert Bittman, Queens College, CUNY • Weston Thatcher Borden, Univ. of Washington • Ajay K. Bose, Stevens Institute of Technology • Cynthia J. Burrows, Univ. of Utah • Walter J. Chazin, Vanderbilt Univ. • Barry S. Cooperman, Univ. of Pennsylvania • James K. Coward, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor • Michael A. Duncan, Univ. of Georgia • Cecil R. Dybowski, Univ. of Delaware • Andrew G. Ewing, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park • Anthony L. Fink, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz • Bruce C. Garrett, Pacific Northwest National Lab. • Rainer E. Glaser, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia • Robert J. Hamers, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • Andrew D. Hamilton, Yale Univ. • Joel M. Harris, Univ. of Utah • Rigoberto Hernandez, Georgia Institute of Technology • Nancy B. Jackson, Sandia National Labs. • William M. Jackson, Univ. of California, Davis • Arthur E. Johnson, Texas A&M Univ., College Station • Anne Myers Kelley, Univ. of California, Merced • Bruce E. Koel, Univ. of Southern California • Nenad M. Kostic, Iowa State Univ. • Gregory J. Kubas, Los Alamos National Lab. • Branka M. Ladanyi, Colorado State Univ. • David S. Lawrence, Albert Einstein College of Medicine • Richard A. Lerner, Scripps Research Institute • Stephen F. Martin, Univ. of Texas, Austin • Henry I. Mosberg, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor • Gilbert M. Nathanson, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • James E. Penner-Hahn, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor • Virgil Percec, Univ. of Pennsylvania • Gregory A. Petsko, Brandeis Univ. • Douglas J. Raber, GreenPoint Science, Washington, DC • J. W. Rogers Jr., Pacific Northwest National Lab. • Eric A. Rohlfing, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC • Gary B. Schuster, Georgia Institute of Technology • Phillip D. Szuromi, AAAS • Veronica Vaida, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder • Warren S. Warren, Princeton Univ. • David R. Williams, Indiana Univ., Bloomington • Robert A. Wind, Pacific Northwest National Lab. • Curt Wittig, Univ. of Southern California • Chi-Huey Wong, Scripps Research Institute
Dentistry and Oral Health Sciences
Adele L. Boskey, Hospital for Special Surgery, NYC • Robert A. Burne, Univ. of Florida
Sandra K. Abell, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia • Dale R. Baker, Arizona State Univ. • Bonnie J. Brunkhorst, California State Univ., San Bernardino • George E. DeBoer, AAAS • Paul B. Kelter, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana • Gregory P. Stefanich, Univ. of Northern Iowa • Virginia W. Stern, AAAS
Harvey W. Blanch, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Jonathan S. Dordick, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute • Christos Georgakis, Tufts Univ. • George Georgiou, Univ. of Texas, Austin • Amit Goyal, Oak Ridge National Lab. • Elias P. Gyftopoulos, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Eugene E. Haller, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Peter J. Hesketh, Georgia Institute of Technology • Ravi K. Jain, Univ. of the Pacific • Jeffrey C. Kantor, Univ. of Notre Dame • Pradeep K. Khosla, Carnegie Mellon Univ. • James Underwood Lemke, San Diego, CA • Bora B. Mikic, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • S. Noor Mohammad, Howard Univ. • Duncan T. Moore, Univ. of Rochester
General Interest in Science and Engineering
Robert M. Cushman, Oak Ridge, TN • Donna Joyce Dean, National Academy of Engineering • Daniel A. Guthrie, Claremont McKenna, Scripps, and Pitzer Colleges, Claremont, CA • Robert Lee Hotz, Los Angeles Times, New York Bureau • Madeleine Jacobs, American Chemical Society
Geology and Geography
Asish R. Basu, Univ. of Rochester • Kevin Burke, Univ. of Houston • Rodney C. Ewing, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor • Jonathan Fink, Arizona State Univ. • Daniel C. Fisher, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor • Paul Jeffrey Fox, Texas A&M Univ., College Station • Patricia H. Kelley, Univ. of North Carolina, Wilmington • Akhio Miyashiro, Albany, NY • Paul Reitan, State Univ. of New York, Buffalo • Nicholas J. Shackleton, Godwin Institute for Quaternary Research, Cambridge, UK • Tjeerd H. van Andel, Univ. of Cambridge, UK • Michael O. Woodburne, Flagstaff, AZ
History and Philosophy of Science
Brian Skyrms, Univ. of California, Irvine • Jeffrey L. Sturchio, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ
Industrial Science and Technology
W. Henry Lambright, Syracuse Univ. • Oliver C. Mullins, Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT • Lura J. Powell, Advanced Imaging Technologies, Richland, WA
Information, Computing, and Communication
Carl K. Chang, Iowa State Univ. • Richard A. DeMillo, Georgia Institute of Technology • Bernardo Huberman, Hewlett Packard Labs., Palo Alto, CA • Yi-Bing Lin, National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan • Panos M. Pardalos, Univ. of Florida • Peter Pirolli, Palo Alto Research Center • Andries van Dam, Brown Univ. • Benjamin W. Wah, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana
Linguistics and Language Science
David W. Lightfoot, Georgetown Univ. • Mabel L. Rice, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence
John H. Ewing, American Mathematical Society • Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College • De Witt L. Sumners, Florida State Univ.
Christie M. Ballantyne, Baylor College of Medicine • Enriqueta C. Bond, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research Triangle Park, NC • Stephen B. Calderwood, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston • Wing-Chung Chan, Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha • Robert J. Desnick, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NYC • Raymond N. DuBois Jr., Vanderbilt Univ. • Roselyn J. Eisenberg, Univ. of Pennsylvania • David Eric Elder, Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania • David Y. Graham, VA Medical Center, Houston, TX • Warner Craig Greene, Univ. of California, San Francisco • Charles H. Halsted, Univ. of California, Davis • J. Marie Hardwick, Johns Hopkins Univ. • William H. Hartmann, Tampa, FL • Ravi V. Iyengar, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NYC • James Larry Jameson, Northwestern Univ. • Barbara R. Jasny, AAAS • Philip R. Johnson, Columbus Children's Research Institute, Columbus, OH • Bruce C. Kone, Univ. of Texas, Houston • Michael E. Lamm, Case Western Reserve Univ. • Wayne I. Lencer, Children's Hospital, Boston • Mary Fisher Lipscomb, Univ. of New Mexico • Yang Liu, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Stephen D. Miller, Northwestern Univ. • Frank G. Moody, Univ. of Texas, Houston • Neal Nathanson, Univ. of Pennsylvania • Electra Diane Paskett, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Charles M. Rice, Rockefeller Univ. • Bernard Roizman, Univ. of Chicago • Raymond P. Roos, Univ. of Chicago • Thomas J. Rosol, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Ruth M. Ruprecht, Harvard Medical School • Alfred P. Sanfilippo, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Mario Stevenson, Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester • Herbert W. Virgin, Washington Univ. • Bruce D. Walker, Harvard Medical School • Joel V. Weinstock, Univ. of Iowa
Constance W. Atwell, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke • Tamas Bartfai, Scripps Research Institute • Gyorgy Buzsaki, Rutgers Univ. • Joseph T. Coyle, Harvard Medical School • Bernice Grafstein, Weill Medical College, Cornell Univ. • Paul Greengard, Rockefeller Univ. • Richard L. Huganir, Johns Hopkins Univ. • Miguel A. L. Nicolelis, Duke Univ. • Howard Schulman, SurroMed, Inc., Menlo Park, CA • Morgan Sheng, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • James G. Townsel, Meharry Medical College
Donald R. Bennett, Downers Grove, IL • Ching-Shih Chen, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Bruce J. Dolnick, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo • Kenneth L. Dretchen, Georgetown Univ. • Joe D. Graedon, Graedon Enterprises, Inc., Durham, NC
Michael J. Aziz, Harvard Univ. • Ravindra N. Bhatt, Princeton Univ. • S. R. J. Brueck, Univ. of New Mexico • Donald L. Cook, Sandia National Labs. • Leonard C. Feldman, Vanderbilt Univ. • Joshua Frieman, Univ. of Chicago • James G. Fujimoto, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Katharine Blodgett Gebbie, National Institute of Standards and Technology • Dennis G. Hall, Vanderbilt Univ. • Ralph B. James, Brookhaven National Lab. • Gabrielle G. Long, Argonne National Lab. • Luz J. Martinez-Miranda, Univ. of Maryland, College Park • Robert L. McCrory, Univ. of Rochester • Dale M. Meade, Princeton Univ. • Pierre Meystre, Univ. of Arizona • Stephen J. Pennycook, Oak Ridge National Lab. • Herschel A. Rabitz, Princeton Univ. • Thomas F. Rosenbaum, Univ. of Chicago • Ned Robert Sauthoff, Princeton Univ. • Gerald Jay Sussman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Joe D. Thompson, Los Alamos National Lab. • John H. Weaver, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana • Edward L. Wright, Univ. of California, Los Angeles
Barbara L. Andersen, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • Thomas J. Coates, Univ. of California, Los Angeles • Mark Allen Geyer, Univ. of California, San Diego • Janet Shibley Hyde, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison • J. A. Scott Kelso, Florida Atlantic Univ. • Jay S. Rosenblatt, Rutgers Univ. • Jenny Saffran, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
Social, Economic, and Political Sciences
Peter J. Burke, Univ. of California, Riverside • Jonathan R. Cole, Columbia Univ. • Scott Coltrane, Univ. of California, Riverside • Gary King, Harvard Univ. • Ronald D. Lee, Univ. of California, Berkeley • Karl Ulrich Mayer, Yale Univ. • Joseph J. Molnar, Auburn Univ.
Societal Impacts of Science and Engineering
Catherine Jay Didion, The Didion Group, Washington, DC • C. K. Gunsalus, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana • Wil Lepkowski, Reston, VA • Claire Nader, Washington, DC • Howard Ris, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA
Ibrahim A. Ahmad, Univ. of Central Florida • L. Mark Berliner, Ohio State Univ., Columbus • James E. Gentle, George Mason Univ. • Clark Glymour, Carnegie Mellon Univ.
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