Appendix A: Darfur, Sudan and Chad Imagery Characteristics

The satellite imagery used in this project was acquired from Digital Globe (QuickBird), Orbimage (Orbview), GeoEye Corporation (Ikonos), and ImageSat International (ErosB). This imagery is visually analyzed for structural damage, evidence of village burning or abandonment, expansion and/or growth of camps of internally displaced persons (IDP), and any other features that indicate an attack has occurred in the target location or nearby. These structural changes are counted, recorded, and utilized to assess the relative amount of destruction that took place in a given location during the timeframe indicated.

The QuickBird satellite carries a multispectral sensor measuring reflected electromagnetic radiation in the red, green, blue, and near-infrared wavelengths. Its spatial resolution is about 0.65 meters for the panchromatic product, making it suitable for assessing individual structures as small as a few meters on a side. It has a nominal overpass frequency of three days, though in practice about one image every two weeks seems to be the most that can be expected. As with any spectral sensor it cannot penetrate clouds, somewhat degrading its availability. Ikonos-2, operated by GeoEye, has one meter panchromatic and four meter multispectral resolution. EROS-B, operated by ImageSat International, has 70 centimeter panchromatic resolution. The images were obtained in GeoTIFF format and imported into ERDAS Imagine for viewing.

Images of Darfur, Sudan and Chad used in this analysis are available as Google Earth layers.

Imagery characteristics for thirteen of 28 locations studied are provided below. Eleven of these locations are in the Daruf region of Sudan: Abu Gudul, Donkey Dereis I, Donkey Dereisa II, Ishma, Ligeidiba, Tigla, Ungabo, Bir Maza, Jonjona, ShangilTobay/Shadad, and Um Sidir. Two others, Bir Kedouas and Maduoa, are in eastern Chad. These thirteen locations are the same ones highlighted in Amnesty International's Eyes on Darfur website. The other fifteen locations studied included twelve in Darfur: Dago, Deribat, Jawa, Shek Hassan, Bornyo, Dar-al-Salam, Helif Sany, Katur, Tabarat, Tawila, Turra, and Krinding. Three others were in Chad: Koloy, Marena, and Tiero. To view images or imagery characteristics for the other fifteen sites, please contact SHRP.

Figure 1: Chad and Sudan Case Study Locations


Figure 2: Damage to village of Abu Gudul

© 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The image to the left shows a complete village of 29 Arab-style houses and outbuildings in January 10, 2006. The right hand image shows that only 10 of these 29 structures remain ten months later October 20, 2006 after the attack had occurred. Note the ring-like appearance of the structures on the right - an indication that they have been burned and destroyed within this period.

Abu Gudul Imagery Characteristics "Before": January 10, 2006
Catalogue ID: 1010010004BF1C0A
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 27 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 10.62306279
nwLon = 25.00386922
seLat = 10.54497221
seLon = 25.06220624

Abu Gudul Imagery Characteristics "After": October 20, 2006
Catalogue ID: 101001000544AB0B
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 31 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 10.62306279
nwLon = 24.99128662
seLat = 10.54076979
seLon = 25.06220624

Figure 3: Damage to the village of Donkey Dereis

"Before" © 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved. "After" © 2007 Orbimage. All rights reserved.

The "before"image on the left, taken November 1, 2004, shows a complete village of 100 structures. By February 12, 2007, the village has been totally destroyed.

Donkey Dereis Imagery Characteristics "Before": November 1, 2004
Catalogue ID: 10100100035CF607
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 25 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 11.58058792
nwLong = 25.04961665
seLat = 11.51758256
seLong = 25.09090578

Donkey Dereis Imagery Characteristics "After": February 12, 2007
Catalogue ID: 20070212083940803OV30159914_006
Source: Orbview - Orbimage
Area: 67 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 11.548495
nwLong= 25.000880
seLat= 11.476022
seLong= 25.075710

Figure 4: Damage to the village of Donkey Dereisa

© 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The image on the left was taken November 1, 2004. Although both images look similar at first glance, close inspection of the right hand image from October 20, 2006, reveals that the village has been almost completely destroyed as a result of the attack and subsequent burning.

Donkey Dereisa Imagery Characteristics "Before": November 1, 2004
Catalogue ID: 10100100035CF607
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 30 km2
Coordinates: nwLat = 11.62000000
nwLong = 24.98000000
seLat = 11.57000000
seLong = 25.03000000

Donkey Dereisa Imagery Characteristics "After": October 20, 2006
Catalogue ID: 101001000544AB04
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 30 km2
Coordinates: nwLat = 11.62000000
nwLong = 24.98000000
seLat = 11.57000000
seLong = 25.03000000

Figure 5: Damage to villages near Ishma


  © 2007 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The three images on the left hand side were taken December 25, 2004. The three images on the right hand side, taken February 10, 2007, clearly show that every structure and fence line had been completely destroyed as a result of the brutal "road-clearing" attack.

Ishma Imagery Characteristics "Before": December 25, 2004
Catalogue ID: 101001000378FF04
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 26 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 12.06030403
nwLong = 25.09021134
seLat = 12.01776945
seLong = 25.16194496

Ishma Imagery Characteristics "After": February 10, 2007
Catalogue ID: 101001000578210E
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 26 km2
Coordinates: nwLat = 12.06030403
nwLong = 25.09021134
seLat = 12.01776945
seLong = 25.16194496

Figure 6: Damage to the village of Ligeidiba

© 2007 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The image on the left, taken April 10, 2006, shows the complete village of Ligeidiba, while the image on the right from January 18, 2007, shows damage, such as missing structures and fence lines that occurred as a result of the attack

Ligeidiba Imagery Characteristics "Before": April 10, 2006
Catalogue ID: 1010010004E9650A
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 26 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 10.65304341
nwLong = 24.68873969
seLat = 10.58430118
seLong = 24.77726419

Ligeidiba Imagery Characteristics "After": January 18, 2007
Catalogue ID: 10100100056EA30B
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 25 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 10.63728068
nwLong = 24.68873969
seLat = 10.58281074
seLong = 24.74404808

Figure 7: Damage to village in Tigla region

© 2006 GeoEye Inc. All rights reserved.

This figure displays one of the forty-eight villages in the Tigla area that was completely destroyed following the attacks. Several homes and fenced areas were present in the September 30, 2004 imagery, while in the September 8, 2006 imagery those structures have been completely removed.

Tigla Imagery Characteristics "Before": September 30, 2004
Catalogue ID: 2004093009081130000011624796
Source: IKONOS - GeoEye
Area: 228 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 11.22
nwLon= 25.17
swLat= 11.06
swLon= 25.30

Tigla Imagery Characteristics "After": September 8, 2006
Catalogue ID: 2006090808585620000011627354
Source: IKONOS - GeoEye
Area: 102 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 11.22
nwLon= 25.17
swLat= 11.13
swLon= 25.27

Figure 8: Damage to the village of Ungabo 

"Before" © 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved. "After" © 2007 Orbimage. All rights reserved.

The "before" image on the left, taken June 21, 2006, shows the undamaged village of Ungabo. On the right, is the "after" image from February 15, 2007, indicating that the village had been significantly affected by the burning event. Note that the areas where this burning occurred do not have fence lines and have dark streaks where homes and other structures once stood.

Ungabo Imagery Characteristics "Before": June 21, 2006
Catalogue ID: 10100100050A1402
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 29 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 11.84150482
nwLong = 26.02513041
seLat = 11.79112906
seLong = 26.10757343

Ungabo Imagery Characteristics "After": February 15, 2007
Catalogue ID: 20070215083132358OV30160083_003
Source: Orbview - Orbimage
Area: 76 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 11.853370
nwLong= 25.983622
seLat= 11.78203
seLong= 26.067133

Figure 9: Damage to village of Bir Maza

"Before" © 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved. "After" © 2007 ImageSat. All rights reserved.

The imagery on the left, taken May 16, 2006, shows an intact village. The imagery on the right, taken April 17, 2007, indicates that several structures had been destroyed during this 13-month timeframe.

Figure 10: Damage to village of Bir Maza

"Before" © 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved. "After" © 2007 ImageSat. All rights reserved.

The "before" imagery, from May 16, 2006, shows an intact market area. The "after" image, from April 17, 2007, shows that 99 of a total of 147 structures had been burned and/or destroyed in this timeframe.

Bir Maza Imagery Characteristics "Before": May 16, 2006
Catalogue ID: 1010010004F98803
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 26 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 14.68583582
nwLong = 24.58210386
seLat = 14.63915270
seLong = 24.62972880

Bir Maza Imagery Characteristics "After": April 17, 2007
Catalogue ID: e205417g
Source: ErosB - ImageSat
Area: 68 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 14.685200
nwLong= 24.581308
seLat= 14.640223
seLong= 24.628896

Figure 11: Damage to the village of Jonjona

© 2007 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The top image, taken December 7, 2004, shows a complete village totaling 426 structures, while the bottom image, from February 23, 2007, indicates that 46 structures were destroyed that were present in the "before" imagery.

Jonjona Imagery Characteristics "Before": December 7, 2004
Catalogue ID: 1010010003701D01
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 37km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 13.70409264
nwLon = 24.92216188
seLat = 13.65484337
seLon = 24.98580117

Jonjona Imagery Characteristics "After": February 23, 2007
Catalogue ID: 10100100057DB800
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 37km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 13.70409264
nwLon = 24.92216188
seLat = 13.65484337
seLon = 24.98580117

Figure 12: Damage to village of Shangil Tobay/Shadad region

© 2007 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The images in the left hand column were taken March 10, 2003. Images on the right were taken December 18, 2006.

Shangil Tobay Imagery Characteristics "Before": March 10, 2003
Catalogue ID: 1010010001B46006
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 32 km2
Coordinates: nwLat = 13.07785752
nwLong = 25.15532155
seLat = 13.01637555
seLong = 25.22226681

Shangil Tobay Imagery Characteristics "After": December 18, 2006
Catalogue ID: 101001000561AC01
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 32 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat = 13.07785752
nwLong = 25.15532155
seLat = 13.01637555
seLong = 25.22226681

Figure 13: Damage to the village of Um Sidir

"Before" © 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved. "After" © 2006 GeoEye Inc. All rights reserved.

The image on the left, taken April 10, 2006, shows the market of Um Sidir. In the 'after' image, from September 21, 2006, the entire area has been burned or otherwise destroyed. Note that the significant difference in color between the images is due to seasonality as the before image was captured during the end of the dry season and the after image was acquired during the rainy season.

Um Sidir Imagery Characteristics "Before": April 10, 2006
Catalogue ID: 1010010004E95F0C
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 68 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 14.46
nwLon= 25.11
swLat= 14.39
swLon= 25.19

Um Sidir Imagery Characteristics "After": September 21, 2006
Catalogue ID: 2006091908591760000011609936
Source: IKONOS - GeoEye
Area: 100 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 14.46
nwLon= 25.10
swLat= 14.38
swLon= 25.20

Figure 14: Damage to village of Bir Kedouas

© 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

The "before" image, taken October 24, 2006, shows a sample set of homes, outbuildings, and fences. The "after" image shows the remains of those same homes and fenced areas on January 7, 2007, after the reported attack.

Bir Kedouas Imagery Characteristics "Before": October 24, 2004
Catalogue ID: 101001000358B903
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 50 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 12.91
nwLon= 21.82
seLat= 12.83
seLon= 21.88

Bir Kedouas Imagery Characteristics "After": January 7, 2006
Catalogue ID: 1010010004BE130F
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 50 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 12.91
nwLon= 21.82
seLat= 12.83
seLon= 21.88

Figure 15: Damage to village of Madoua

© 2006 DigitalGlobe Inc. All rights reserved.

A subset of the high resolution satellite imagery of the Madoua settlement in eastern Chad, along the Chad/Sudan border. The left image was taken March 2, 2006. By November 4, 2006, right, all of the structures were destroyed.

Madoua Imagery Characteristics "Before": February 15, 2004
Catalogue ID: 1010010002B5EC04
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 25 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 12.53
nwLon= 22.37
seLat= 12.49
seLon= 22.42

Madoua Imagery Characteristics "After": November 4, 2006
Catalogue ID: 10100100054C380C
Source: Quickbird - Digital Globe
Area: 25 km2
Coordinates:
nwLat= 12.33
nwLon= 22.21
seLat= 12.28
seLon= 22.25