To recognize scientists, journalists, and public servants for significant contributions to science and to the public’s understanding of science, the Association administers the awards listed below. All awards are presented at the AAAS Annual Meeting immediately following the award year.
Newcomb Cleveland Prize Recipients
The 2014 Newcomb Cleveland Prize is awarded to Lulu Xie, Hogyi Kang,Qiwu Xu, Michael J. Chen, Yonghong Liao, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, John O’Donnell, Daniel J. Christensen, Charles Nicholson, Jeffrey J. Iliff ,Takahiro Takano, Rashid Deane, Maiken Nedergaard for their outstanding report “Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain” published in Science 18 October 2013, pp. 373-377.
The report addresses the age-old and profound question: “Why do we sleep?” The paper arrives at the equally remarkable conclusion: during sleep the space between brain cells increases by 60 percent, boosting the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that flushes waste products such as ß-amyloid (associated with Alzheimer’s disease) from the brain. The peer reviewers found the results of this paper startling, unexpected, and ranked it as one of the most influential papers in the neurosciences published all year.Technically, the experimental techniques used on laboratory mice to measure changes in brain status in vivo during sleep and waking hours were extremely challenging, novel, and cutting edge. Even to the members of the selection committee well outside of the field the paper was a pleasure to read and easily conveyed the importance of the question being posed and the significance of the finding. The implications of the results are far reaching: from treatment of sleep disorders to therapies for Alzheimer’s disease, this paper suggests new directions that are game changers.
- Travis A. Jarrell, Yi Wang, Adam E. Bloniarz, Christopher A. Brittin, Meng Xu, J. Nichol Thomson, Donna G. Albertson, David H. Hall, and Scott W.Emmons for the research article “The Connectome of a Decision-Making Neural Network,” published in Science 27 July, 2012 (pp. 437-444).
- Vincent Mourik, Kun Zuo, Sergey M. Frolov, Sébastien R. Plissard, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, and Leo P. Kouwenhoven for the report “Signatures of Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Superconductor-Semiconductor Nanowire Devices” published in Science 25 May 2012, pp. 1003-1007.
- Waseem S. Bakr, Amy Peng, M. Eric Tai, Ruichao Ma, Jonathan Simon, Jonathon Isaiah Gillen, Simon Fölling, Lode Pollet, and Markus Greiner for the research article “Probing the Superfluid-to-Mott Insulator Transition at the Single-Atom Level,” published in Science 30 July 2010, pp. 547-550.
- Richard E. Green, Johannes Krause, Adrian W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, Heng Li, Weiwei Zhai, Markus Hsi-Yang Fritz, Nancy F. Hansen, Eric Y. Durand, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Hernán A. Burbano, Jeffrey M. Good, Rigo Schultz, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Anne Butthof, Barbara Höber, Barbara Höffner, Madlen Siegemund, Antje Weihmann, Chad Nusbaum, Eric S. Lander, Carsten Russ, Nathaniel Novod, Jason Affourtit, Michael Egholm, Christine Verna, Pavao Rudan, Dejana Brajkovic, Željko Kucan, Ivan Gušic, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Liubov V. Golovanova, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Javier Fortea, Antonio Rosas, Ralf W. Schmitz, Philip L. F. Johnson, Evan E. Eichler, Daniel Falush, Ewan Birney, James C. Mullikin, Montgomery Slatkin, Rasmus Nielsen, Janet Kelso, Michael Lachmann, David Reich, and Svante Pääbo for the research article “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome,” published in Science 7 May 2010, pp. 653-776.
- Paul Kalas, James R. Graham, Eugene Chiang, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Mark Clampin, Edwin S. Kite, Karl Stapelfeldt, Christian Marois, and John Krist for the research article “Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth,” published in Science 28 November 2008, pp. 1345-1348
Christian Marois, Bruce Macintosh, Travis Barman, B. Zuckerman, Inseok Song, Jennifer Patience, David Lafrenière, and René Doyon for the research article “Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” published in Science 28 November 2008, pp. 1348-1352.
- Anoop Kumar, James W. Godwin, Phillip B. Gates, A. Acely Garza-Garcia, and Jeremy P. Brockesfor the research article “Molecular Basis for the Nerve Dependence of Limb Regeneration in an Adult Vertebrate,” published in Science 2 November 2007, pp. 772-777.
- Hani M. El-Kaderi, Joseph R. Hunt, José L. Mendoza-Cortés, Adrien P. Côté, Robert E. Taylor, Michael O’Keeffe, and Omar M. Yaghi for the report “Designed Synthesis of 3D Covalent Organic Frameworks,” published in Science on 13 April 2007, pp. 268—272.
- Jason R. Petta, Alexander C. Johnson, Jacob M. Taylor, Edward A. Laird, Amir Yacoby, Mikhail D. Lukin, Charles M. Marcus, Micah P. Hanson, Arthur C. Gossard for the research article “Coherent Manipulation of Coupled Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” published online inScience Express 1 September 2005, published in print 30 September 2005, pp. 2180-2184.
- David D. Awschalom, Yuichiro K. Kato, Roberto C. Myers, and Arthur C. Gossard for the research article “Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors,” published in Science, 10 December 2004, pp. 1910-1913. At the time of publication, the authors’ affiliation was the Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara. Currently, Kato is at Stanford University.
- Brian Kuhlman, Gautam Dantas, Gregory C. Ireton, Gabriele Varani, Barry L. Stoddard and David Baker for “Design of a Novel Globular Protein Fold with Atomic-Level Accuracy,” published inScience 21 November 2003.
- Thomas A. Volpe, Catherine Kidner, Ira M. Hall, Grace Teng, Shiv I.S. Grewal and Robert A. Martienssen for the research article “Regulation of Heterochromatic Silencing and Histone H3 Lysine-9 Methylation by RNAi,” published in Science, 13 September 2002, pp. 1833-1837and
- Ira M. Hall, Gurumurthy D. Shankaranarayana, Ken-ichi Noma, Nabieh Ayoub, Amikam Cohen and Shiv I.S. Grewal for the research article “Establishment and Maintenance of a Heterochromatin Domain,” published in Science, 27 September 2002, pp. 2232-2236
- Mariana Lagos-Quintana, Reinhard Rauhut, Winfried Lendeckel, and Thomas Tuschl for the report “Identification of Novel Genes Coding for Small Expressed RNAs,” published in Science, 26 October 2001;
- Nelson C. Lau, Lee P. Lim, Earl G. Weinstein, and David P. Bartel for the report “An Abundant Class of Tiny RNAs with Probable Regulatory Roles in Caenorhabditis elegans,” published in Science, 26 October 2001;and
- Rosalind C. Lee and Victor Ambros for the report, “An Extensive Class of Small RNAs inCaenorhabditis elegans,” published in Science, 26 October 2001.
- Nenad Ban, Poul Nissen, Jeffrey Hansen, Peter B. Moore, and Thomas A. Steitz for the research article “The Complete Atomic Structure of the Large Ribosomal Subunit at 2.4 Å Resolution,” published in Science, 11 August 2000;
- Poul Nissen, Jeffrey Hansen, Nenad Ban, Peter B. Moore, and Thomas A. Steitz for the research article “The Structural Basis for Ribosome Activity in Peptide Bond Synthesis,” published in Science, 11 August 2000;and
- Marat M. Yusupov, Gulnara Gh. Yusupova, Albion Baucom, Kate Lieberman, Thomas N. Earnest, J.H.D. Cate, and Harry F. Noller for the research article “Crystal Structure of the Ribosome at 5.5 Å Resolution,” published in Science, 4 May 2001.
- Mark D. Adams, Susan E. Celniker, Gerald M. Rubin and J. Craig Venter for the review “The Genome Sequence of Drosophilia melanogaster,” 24 March 2000.
- Norman Murray and Matthew Holman for the research article “The Origin of Chaos in the Outer Solar System,” 19 March 1999.
- Declan A. Doyle, João Morais Cabral, Richard A. Pfuetzner, Anling Kuo, Jacqueline M. Gulbis, Steven L. Cohen, Brian T. Chait and Roderick MacKinnon for the research article “The Structure of the Potassium Channel: Molecular Basis of K+ Conduction and Selectivity,” 3 April, 1998;and
- Roderick MacKinnon, Steven L. Cohen, Anling Kuo, Alice Lee and Brian T. Chait for the report “Structural Conservation in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Potassium Channels,” 3 April 1998.
- Nicholas C. Wrighton, Francis X. Farrell, Ray Chang, Arun K. Kashyap, Francis Barbone, Linda S. Mulcahy, Dana L. Johnson, Ronald W. Barrett, Linda K. Jolliffe and William J. Dower for the research article “Small peptides as Potent Mimetics of the Protein Hormone Erythropoietin,” 26 July 1996;and
- Oded Livnah, Enrico A. Stura, Dana L. Johnson, Steven A. Middleton, Linda S. Mulcahy, Nicholas C. Wrighton, William J. Dower, Linda K. Jolliffe and Ian A. Wilson for the research article “Functional Mimicry of a Protein Hormone by a Peptide Agonist: The EPO receptor Complex at 2.8 Å,” 26 July 1996.
For a complete listing of past Newcomb Cleveland Prize recipients, please see the AAAS Archives.
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