Newcomb Cleveland Prize Recipients
The 2016 Newcomb Cleveland Prize was awarded to Robert Gütig for his outstanding research article "Spiking neurons can discover predictive features by aggregate-label learning," published in Science 4 Mar 2016.
To discover relevant clues for survival, an organism must bridge the gap between the short time periods when a clue occurs and the potentially long waiting times after which feedback arrives. This so-called temporal credit-assignment problem is also a major challenge in machine learning. Gütig developed a representation of the responses of spiking neurons, whose derivative defines the direction along which a neuron's response changes most rapidly. By using a learning rule that follows this development, the temporal credit-assignment problem can be solved by training a neuron to match its number of output spikes to the number of clues. The same learning rule endows unsupervised neural networks with powerful learning capabilities. The paper has considerable significance both for neuroscience and for machine learning. For neuroscience, it presents an intriguing and testable hypothesis about communication within the brain. For machine learning, the algorithm developed is demonstrated in the paper to have considerable power.
- Bi-Chang Chen, Wesley R. Legant, Kai Wang, Lin Shao, Daniel E. Milkie, Michael W. Davidson, Chris Janetopoulos, Xufeng S. Wu, John A. Hammer III, Zhe Liu, Brian P. English, Yuko Mimori-Kiyosue, Daniel P. Romero, Alex T. Ritter, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Lillian Fritz-Laylin, R. Dyche Mullins, Diana M. Mitchell, Joshua N. Bembenek, Anne-Cecile Reymann, Ralph Böhme, Stephan W. Grill, Jennifer T. Wang, Geraldine Seydoux, U. Serdar Tulu, Daniel P. Kiehart, and Eric Betzig for the research article "Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution," published in Science 24 October 2014, pp. 439.
- Lulu Xie, Hogyi Kang,Qiwu Xu, Michael J. Chen, Yonghong Liao, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, John O’Donnell, Daniel J. Christensen, Charles Nicholson, Jeffrey J. Iliff ,Takahiro Takano, Rashid Deane, Maiken Nedergaard for the report "Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain," published in Science 18 October 2013, pp. 373-377.
- Travis A. Jarrell, Yi Wang, Adam E. Bloniarz, Christopher A. Brittin, Meng Xu, J. Nichol Thomson, Donna G. Albertson, David H. Hall, and Scott W.Emmons for the research article "The Connectome of a Decision-Making Neural Network," published in Science 27 July 2012 pp. 437-444.
- Vincent Mourik, Kun Zuo, Sergey M. Frolov, Sébastien R. Plissard, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, and Leo P. Kouwenhoven for the report “Signatures of Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Superconductor-Semiconductor Nanowire Devices,” published in Science 25 May 2012, pp. 1003-1007.
- Waseem S. Bakr, Amy Peng, M. Eric Tai, Ruichao Ma, Jonathan Simon, Jonathon Isaiah Gillen, Simon Fölling, Lode Pollet, and Markus Greiner for the research article “Probing the Superfluid-to-Mott Insulator Transition at the Single-Atom Level,” published in Science 30 July 2010, pp. 547-550.
- Richard E. Green, Johannes Krause, Adrian W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, Heng Li, Weiwei Zhai, Markus Hsi-Yang Fritz, Nancy F. Hansen, Eric Y. Durand, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Hernán A. Burbano, Jeffrey M. Good, Rigo Schultz, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Anne Butthof, Barbara Höber, Barbara Höffner, Madlen Siegemund, Antje Weihmann, Chad Nusbaum, Eric S. Lander, Carsten Russ, Nathaniel Novod, Jason Affourtit, Michael Egholm, Christine Verna, Pavao Rudan, Dejana Brajkovic, Željko Kucan, Ivan Gušic, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Liubov V. Golovanova, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Javier Fortea, Antonio Rosas, Ralf W. Schmitz, Philip L. F. Johnson, Evan E. Eichler, Daniel Falush, Ewan Birney, James C. Mullikin, Montgomery Slatkin, Rasmus Nielsen, Janet Kelso, Michael Lachmann, David Reich, and Svante Pääbo for the research article “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome,” published in Science 7 May 2010, pp. 653-776.
- Paul Kalas, James R. Graham, Eugene Chiang, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Mark Clampin, Edwin S. Kite, Karl Stapelfeldt, Christian Marois, and John Krist for the research article “Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth,” published in Science 28 November 2008, pp. 1345-1348 and
Christian Marois, Bruce Macintosh, Travis Barman, B. Zuckerman, Inseok Song, Jennifer Patience, David Lafrenière, and René Doyon for the research article “Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” published in Science 28 November 2008, pp. 1348-1352.
- Anoop Kumar, James W. Godwin, Phillip B. Gates, A. Acely Garza-Garcia, and Jeremy P. Brockes for the research article “Molecular Basis for the Nerve Dependence of Limb Regeneration in an Adult Vertebrate,” published in Science 2 November 2007, pp. 772-777.
- Hani M. El-Kaderi, Joseph R. Hunt, José L. Mendoza-Cortés, Adrien P. Côté, Robert E. Taylor, Michael O’Keeffe, and Omar M. Yaghi for the report “Designed Synthesis of 3D Covalent Organic Frameworks,” published in Science on 13 April 2007, pp. 268-272.
- Jason R. Petta, Alexander C. Johnson, Jacob M. Taylor, Edward A. Laird, Amir Yacoby, Mikhail D. Lukin, Charles M. Marcus, Micah P. Hanson, Arthur C. Gossard for the research article “Coherent Manipulation of Coupled Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” published online in Science Express 1 September 2005, published in print 30 September 2005, pp. 2180-2184.
- David D. Awschalom, Yuichiro K. Kato, Roberto C. Myers, and Arthur C. Gossard for the research article “Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors,” published in Science 10 December 2004, pp. 1910-1913. At the time of publication, the authors’ affiliation was the Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara. Currently, Kato is at Stanford University.
- Brian Kuhlman, Gautam Dantas, Gregory C. Ireton, Gabriele Varani, Barry L. Stoddard and David Baker for the research article “Design of a Novel Globular Protein Fold with Atomic-Level Accuracy,” published in Science 21 November 2003, pp. 1364-1368.
- Thomas A. Volpe, Catherine Kidner, Ira M. Hall, Grace Teng, Shiv I.S. Grewal and Robert A. Martienssen for the research article “Regulation of Heterochromatic Silencing and Histone H3 Lysine-9 Methylation by RNAi,” published in Science 13 September 2002, pp. 1833-1837 and
- Ira M. Hall, Gurumurthy D. Shankaranarayana, Ken-ichi Noma, Nabieh Ayoub, Amikam Cohen and Shiv I.S. Grewal for the research article “Establishment and Maintenance of a Heterochromatin Domain,” published in Science 27 September 2002, pp. 2232-2236.
- Mariana Lagos-Quintana, Reinhard Rauhut, Winfried Lendeckel, and Thomas Tuschl for the report “Identification of Novel Genes Coding for Small Expressed RNAs,” published in Science 26 October 2001, pp. 853-858;
- Nelson C. Lau, Lee P. Lim, Earl G. Weinstein, and David P. Bartel for the report “An Abundant Class of Tiny RNAs with Probable Regulatory Roles in Caenorhabditis elegans,” published in Science 26 October 2001, 858-862; and
- Rosalind C. Lee and Victor Ambros for the report, “An Extensive Class of Small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans,” published in Science 26 October 2001, pp. 862-864.
- Nenad Ban, Poul Nissen, Jeffrey Hansen, Peter B. Moore, and Thomas A. Steitz for the research article “The Complete Atomic Structure of the Large Ribosomal Subunit at 2.4 Å Resolution,” published in Science 11 August 2000, pp. 905-920;
- Poul Nissen, Jeffrey Hansen, Nenad Ban, Peter B. Moore, and Thomas A. Steitz for the research article “The Structural Basis for Ribosome Activity in Peptide Bond Synthesis,” published in Science 11 August 2000, pp. 920-930; and
- Marat M. Yusupov, Gulnara Gh. Yusupova, Albion Baucom, Kate Lieberman, Thomas N. Earnest, J.H.D. Cate, and Harry F. Noller for the research article “Crystal Structure of the Ribosome at 5.5 Å Resolution,” published in Science 4 May 2001, pp. 883-896.
- Mark D. Adams, Susan E. Celniker, Gerald M. Rubin and J. Craig Venter for the review “The Genome Sequence of Drosophilia melanogaster,” published in Science 24 March 2000, pp. 2185-2195.
- Norman Murray and Matthew Holman for the research article “The Origin of Chaos in the Outer Solar System,” published in Science 19 March 1999, pp. 1877-1881.
- Declan A. Doyle, João Morais Cabral, Richard A. Pfuetzner, Anling Kuo, Jacqueline M. Gulbis, Steven L. Cohen, Brian T. Chait and Roderick MacKinnon for the research article “The Structure of the Potassium Channel: Molecular Basis of K+ Conduction and Selectivity,” published in Science 3 April, 1998, pp. 69-77 and
- Roderick MacKinnon, Steven L. Cohen, Anling Kuo, Alice Lee and Brian T. Chait for the report “Structural Conservation in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Potassium Channels,” published in Science 3 April 1998, pp. 106-109.
- Nicholas C. Wrighton, Francis X. Farrell, Ray Chang, Arun K. Kashyap, Francis Barbone, Linda S. Mulcahy, Dana L. Johnson, Ronald W. Barrett, Linda K. Jolliffe and William J. Dower for the research article “Small peptides as Potent Mimetics of the Protein Hormone Erythropoietin,” published in Science 26 July 1996, pp. 458-463 and
- Oded Livnah, Enrico A. Stura, Dana L. Johnson, Steven A. Middleton, Linda S. Mulcahy, Nicholas C. Wrighton, William J. Dower, Linda K. Jolliffe and Ian A. Wilson for the research article “Functional Mimicry of a Protein Hormone by a Peptide Agonist: The EPO receptor Complex at 2.8 Å,” published in Science 26 July 1996, pp. 464-471.
For a complete listing of past Newcomb Cleveland Prize recipients, please see the AAAS Archives.
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