Biological science and biotechnology are advancing globally at an unprecedented rate and are being applied to such diverse sectors as energy, agriculture, health, and the environment. International scientific collaboration plays an essential role in advancing the biological sciences and applying their results to societal needs. These partnerships can improve relations between countries, build transparency and trust, and enhance both safety and security worldwide. With support from the U.S. Department of State, the Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy (CSTSP) at AAAS and the H.R.H. Princess Haya Biotechnology Center at JUST hosted a meeting in Amman, Jordan on October 3-6, 2010 to examine the critical issues (e.g., scientific and human capacity and responsible research conduct) underlying international collaboration among life scientists from countries in the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States. The objectives of the meeting were to identify the successes and barriers for conducting international scientific collaboration, developing and sustaining a vibrant workforce, and identifying shared principles and standards of practice in biosafety, biosecurity, and bioethics.