otherwise indicated, all dollar figures in this report refer
to research and development (R&D), which includes both the
conduct of R&D and support for R&D facilities. Some figures
refer only to conduct of R&D and are noted as such.
report uses the National Science Foundation's (NSF) definitions
for R&D, which are used by NSF and the Office of Management
and Budget in the collection of federal government statistics
for R&D. Definitions follow.
to researchžboth basic and appliedžand development activities
in the sciences and engineering as well as R&D plant.
is systematic study directed toward fuller scientific understanding
of the subject studied. Research is classified as either basic
or applied according to the objective of the sponsoring agency.
research the objective of the sponsoring agency is to gain
fuller knowledge or understanding of the fundamental aspects
of phenomena and of observable facts without specific applications
toward processes or products in mind.
research the objective of the sponsoring agency is to gain
knowledge or understanding necessary for determining means
by which a recognized and specific need may be met.
is the systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained
from research directed toward the production of useful materials,
devices, systems or methods, including design, development,
and improvement of prototypes and new processes. It excludes
quality control, routine product testing and evaluation.
for conducting R&D include those for personnel, program supervision,
and administrative support directly associated with R&D activities.
Expendable or movable equipment needed to conduct R&D, e.g.,
a microscope or a spectrometer, is also included.
discussed above constitute "conduct of R&D." R&D plant, or
R&D facilities support, including funds for nonmovable R&D
facilities such as reactors, wind tunnels, or particle accelerators,
or for the construction, repair, or alteration of such facilities.
(A facility is interpreted broadly to be any physical resource
important to the conduct of R&D.)
may vary between tables. Some tables are based on calendar
years while others are based on fiscal years; some cover only
conduct of R&D while others cover R&D facilities support as
well. Data are collected using a variety of surveys which
yield data that are not always perfectly consistent. Some
data are collecting by surveying the sources of R&D funds
(such as federal agencies) while others data are based on
a survey of recipients. Please refer to the original source
for complete information on how the data are collected.
adapted from National Science Foundation, Federal R&D Funding
by Budget Function Fiscal Years 1994-96, NSF 95-342, 1995,
and other NSF publications)
in The Future of Science and Technology in the States Series:
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Future of Science and Technology in Pennsylvania: Trends and
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reports may be ordered directly from the AAAS Directorate
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AAAS Report XXIV: Research and Development FY 2000,
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Available May 1999. (A comprehensive analysis of the federal
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Science and Technology Policy Yearbook 1999, Albert H.
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1999. ISBN 0-87168-632-5. $24.95; $19.95 to AAAS members.
(A collection of writings on the major science and technology
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AAAS publication number: 96-2S. $15.95; $12.76 to AAAS members.
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Further information on the activities and publications
of the AAAS Directorate for Science and Policy Programs is
available on the AAAS Web site at http://www.aaas.org/spp/
information on federal funding for R&D is available on the
R&D Budget and Policy Project home page at http://www.aaas.org/spp/dspp/rd/rdwwwpg.htm.
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