The emerging fields of nanoscale science, engineering,
and technology —the ability to measure and restructure matter at the atomic and
molecular levels to create materials, devices and systems with fundamentally new
properties and functions—are leading to unprecedented understanding and control
over the basic building blocks and properties of all natural and manmade things.
The fiscal year (FY) 2009 funding request for nanoscale science, engineering
and technology (in brief, nanotechnology) research and development
(R&D) in 13 federal departments and agencies is $1.5 billion (Table I-9). This investment is known as the National Nanotechnology
Initiative (NNI) and began in FY 2001, with a budget of $494 million.
The NNI is a collaborative program among 26 federal departments and agencies
with a long-term strategic plan to accelerate discovery, development and deployment
of nanotechnology. The
budget increase is justified by the current results and potential to expand fundamental
knowledge and contribute to national priorities such as economic competitiveness
and public health. Because of the NNI: federal agencies have initiated major new nanotechnology R&D activities
under a common vision that support national goals and agency missions; an extensive
infrastructure of nanotechnology research and educations centers has been established;
and participating agencies are working together to maximize the effectiveness
of their individual and collective investments on society.
The NNI vision is a future
in which understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale will lead to a revolution
in technology and industry. The four goals of the NNI are to: 1/ Advance a world-class nanotechnology
research and development program; 2/ Foster the transfer of new technologies into
products for commercial and public benefit; 3/ Develop and sustain educational
resources, a skilled workforce, and the supporting infrastructure and tools to
advance nanotechnology; and 4/ Support responsible development of nanotechnology.
supported R&D is grouped into eight program component areas (PCAs) whose proposed
FY 2009 funding levels for all NNI agencies are as follows: (1) Fundamental nanoscale
phenomena and processes, $551 million; (2) Nanomaterials, $227 million; (3) Nanoscale
devices and systems, $327 million; (4) Instrumentation research, metrology, and
standards for nanotechnology, $82 million; (5) Nanomanufacturing, $62 million;
(6) Major research facilities and instrumentation acquisition, $161 million; (7)
Environmental, health and safety (EHS), $76 million; and (8) Education and societal
dimensions, $41 million.
generally is provided on a competitive basis with other programs and within NNI.
The President signed on December 3, 2004, the “21st Century Nanotechnology R&D
Act” (Public Law 108-153) with recommend funding levels for five agencies—NSF,
DOE, NASA, NIST and EPA—for fiscal years 2004-2008. NSET updated its long-term
strategic plan in December 2007. The
President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), which was assigned
as the National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel (NNAP) called for by the Act, reviewed
NNI in the report NNI at Five Years (2005) and another report is expected
in Spring 2008. The National Research Council published two reviews of NNI, in
2002 and 2006, and another study focused on environmental, health and safety aspects
covered by NNI is under way. Nanotechnology is highlighted by the American Competitiveness
Initiative providing support to NSF, DOE (Office of Science) and NIST.
for All Agencies
·- The FY 2009 President’s request of about
$1.5 billion for federal investment in nanoscale science provides a 2.4 percent
increase over the current FY 2008 estimate. The FY 2009 increases are at NSF,
DOE, NIST, EPA and USDA. The budget decreases at DOD and NASA may be explained
by the reassignment of applied nanotechnology projects to other areas of relevance,
as well as by overall budget constraints. Approximately 65 percent of the total
NNI funding supports academic research. The balance funds R&D at government
laboratories (about 25 percent) and in industry (about 10 percent to industry,
of which 7 percent is small business).
·- The 2009 NNI budget provides increased
support for research on fundamental nanoscale phenomena and processes, from $481
million in 2007 to $551 million in 2009.
·- The proposed budget reflects substantial
growth in funding for instrumentation research, metrology, and standards (from
$53 million in 2007 to $83 million in 2009) and in nanomanufacturing research
(from $48 million in 2006 to $62 million in 2009). NNI agencies are gathering
input and feedback from industry and the research community on these growing investments
through a series of workshops.
·- EHS R&D funding in 2009 ($76.4 million)
is over double the level of actual funding in 2005 ($34.8 million). The steady
growth in EHS R&D spending follows the NNI strategy of expanding the capacity
to do high quality research in this field. For tables in this document, EHS R&D
is defined as research whose primary purpose is to understand and address potential
risks to health and to the environment posed by nanotechnology. Therefore the
proposed $76.4 million for 2009 does not include substantial research reported
under other PCAs, e.g., on instrumentation and metrology and on fundamental
interactions between biosystems and engineered nanoscale materials, both of which
are important in the performance and interpretation of toxicological research.
The interagency Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee
published a draft report for public comment prepared by its Nanotechnology Environmental
and Health Implications (NEHI) Working Group entitled Prioritization of Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for
Engineered Nanoscale Materials in August 2007, and a Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety
Research in February 2008. This data in 2006 showed that the total
funding for nanotechnology-related research in 2006 was about $68 million, 80
percent higher than that reported for “primary purpose research.” An
FDA task force released a report in 2007 addressing scientific questions related
to the application of its regulatory authorities to nanotechnology-enabled products.
EPA issued a white paper on nanotechnology in 2007, and has initiated a Nanoscale
Materials Stewardship Program under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in
January 2008 to gather and develop information from manufacturers, importers,
processors and users of engineered chemical nanoscale materials. NIOSH continues
to update its guidance document on best practices for safe handling of nanomaterials
in the workplace, and has posted a draft document providing interim guidance on
medical screening of workers potentially exposed to engineered nanoparticles.
Two joint interagency solicitations for research projects addressing potential
environmental and health implications of nanotechnology continue. One (led by
EPA, with NSF) addresses environmental implications, while another (led by NIH,
with EPA and NIOSH) focuses on human health implications. NSF will fund a new
Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEIN) in 2008, and plans
to form a network around it in 2009 with collaboration from EPA and other agencies.
NNI agencies are coordinating this research internationally as well, with outreach
to the European Union and Japan in particular, both bilaterally and through international
·NNI has created an extensive network of
over 65 large research centers, user facilities and other infrastructure for nanotechnology
research. Table 2 lists key R&D networks and user facilities.
The initiative focuses on long-term
research to understand the manipulation of matter at the atomic, molecular and
supramolecular levels. Applications areas include electronics for information
technology; high-performance, lower-maintenance materials and design for manufacturing,
defense, transportation, space, and the environment; applications in medicine,
health care, and agriculture; and extending the limits of sustainable development.
In FY 2009, priority in R&D funding will continue
be given to research on: (1) advancing the knowledge frontiers of nanoscale phenomena
and processes to extend systematic control over matter at the nanoscale, and in
particular to quantum phenomena and selfassembling processes; (2) materials with
emerging behavior, including activities related to the hydrogen economy; (3) active
nanostructures and complex nanosystems; (4) enabling the design of hierarchically
structured materials and efficient nanomanufacturing from the molecular scale;
(5) nano-biosystems and medicine; (6) silicon nanoelectronics and beyond; (7)
development of instrumentation, metrology and standards; and (8) environmental,
health and safety (EHS) issues. It will also support: (1) the education and training
of the new generation or workers for the future industries; (2) addressing ethical
and other social issues raised by the development of nanotechnology; (3) establishing
and operating major scientific user facilities with advanced instrumentation;
and (4) partnerships to enhance industrial participation in the nanotechnology
revolution. The convergence of nanotechnology
with information technology, modern biology and social sciences will reinvigorate
discoveries and innovation in almost all areas of the economy.
Key areas of growth are nanotechnology research
for nanomedicine (particularly at NIH), nanoscale systems and their manufacturing
(particularly at NSF and NIST), energy conversion (particularly at DOE and NSF),
agriculture and forestry products (at USDA), and EHS (particularly at EPA, NIOSH,
NIH, DOE and NSF). The detailed NNI priorities per PCA and agency are presented
The Department of Education and Department of Labor have become NNI participants.
Collaborative activities: The National Science and
Technology Council (NSTC) Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology
(NSET) will coordinate joint activities that create synergies between the individual
agencies in a variety of topics and modalities of collaboration. NSET
will identify the most promising research directions; fund complementary/synergistic
fields of research that are critical for the advancement of the nanoscience and
engineering field; develop a balanced infrastructure (portfolio of programs, development
of new specific tools, instrumentation, simulation infrastructure, standards for
nanoscale); correlate funding activities for centers and networks of excellence;
cost-share high cost R&D activities; develop a broad workforce trained in
the many aspects necessary to nanotechnology; study the diverse, complex implications
on society such as the effect of nanostructured material manufacturing on the
environment and the effect of nanodevices on health; and avoid unnecessary duplication
of efforts. NSET will also address NNI management issues, the interaction with
nanotechnology regional alliances, and international activities.
Several NSET working groups
(Nanomaterials Environmental and Health Implications, Nanotechnology Industrial
Liaison and Innovation, Nanomanufacturing, Nanotechnology Public Engagement, and
Global Issues in Nanotechnology) provide support for partnerships.
Examples of specific coordination efforts are:
Nanomanufacturing Network (key partners NSF, DOD, and NIST; the main node of the
network is at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst).
and health issues (two joint solicitations are planned involving EPA, NIOSH, NIH,
NSF, DOE and USDA, and a partnership with European Community is explored in FY
2009; NIH, FDA and NIOSH continue to collaborate in the National Toxicology Program
that involves the toxicological evaluation of specific engineered nanomaterials;
NSF and EPA will establish the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology.)
· NIH, FDA
and NIOSH continue to collaborate in support of the Nanotechnology Characterization
Laboratory (NCL) established by the National Cancer Institute.
development (such as among R&D centers—NSECs, NNIN, NCN, and centers and networks
with DOE, DOD, NASA, NIH, and NIST).
characterization and standards development (NIST, FDA, NIH, NSF and other agencies);
Modeling and simulation and nanoelectronics (DOD, DOE-Sandia National Laboratory,
NASA and NSF).
with the Semiconductor Research Corporation to develop the next generation of
nanometer-scale lithography technology (NSF and DOD); Cooperative efforts between
DOD (ARO) and DOE (Sandia National Laboratory) to develop monolithic absorber/bolometric
sensors for terahertz detectors.
research at the intersection of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology (NSF, NASA, EPA). Cooperative efforts between
DOD, DOE, NASA, and NSF on materials, and device development and modeling for
direct thermal-to-electrical energy conversion will be undertaken in areas of
thermoelectric, thermophotovoltaics, and thermionics.
NSF, NIH, and NIST will collaborate on development and use of neutron and synchrotron
(NCI) and NIST will collaborate on nanobiotechnology, including novel opto-immunoassays
for probing the molecular pathology of prostate cancer.
collaborates with NSF in the NSF-Navy Civilian Service Fellowship/Scholarship
and NSF are actively exploring ways to expand the scope of the institutional NCI-NSF
Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeships (IGERT) awards initiated
in FY 2005 in support of nanobiotechnology training.
liaison and technology transfer activities are given a high priority in the new
NNI Strategic Plan released in December 2007. NNI agencies are working with various
industry sectors to gather input on their nanotechnology-related activities, and
are funding increasing numbers of nanotechnology-related SBIR and STTR awards
to promote technology transfer to industry. Industry liaison groups with the electronics,
forest products, and chemical industries, and with the industry research management
community are continuing, while formation of comparable groups with other sectors
such as constructions and predictive nanomaterials is under consideration. One
successful example is the collaboration between NSF, NIST, and the industry-led
Nanoelectronics Research Initiative, where industry and government representatives
collaborate in reviewing proposals and in supporting pre-competitive research.
In another example, NIH is formulating a “NanoHealth Enterprise,” which will be
a partnership with other federal agencies, private industry, and international
partners to address research needs for safe development of nanoscale materials
collaborations in nanotechnology are progressing, with strong NNI agency participation.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Party
on Manufactured Nanomaterials, chaired by the United States, has begun its work addressing
health and safety issues. A second OECD working party formed under the Committee
for Scientific and Technological Policy is addressing broader issues such as economic
impact, education and training, and public communication. With respect to standards
development, the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office and several NSET
member agencies represent the United States on the International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Nanotechnologies (ISO TC 229),
and the United States leads the ISO TC 229 working
group on EHS aspects of nanotechnology.
detailed Budget Supplement will be released after agencies have allocated funds
received under 2009 appropriations, and when data become available on funding
for nanotechnology under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small
Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) programs.
National Science Foundation (NSF)
The FY 2009 request is $396.8
million, an $8.1 million increase over the FY 2008 current estimate (see Table
1. NSF Directorate Budgets for NNI Funding
(in millions of dollars)
FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009
Plan Estimate Request
Biological Sciences 54.71 55.55 56.60
Computer and Info. Sci. and
137.02 137.02 140.02
9.65 9.65 6.33
Mathematical and Phys. Sci.
169.48 169.48 178.07
Social, Behavioral and Econ.
Scis. 1.67 1.67 1.67
Subtotal, R&RA 385.42 385.59 393.69
Education and Human Res. 3.27 3.10 3.10
Total National Nanotech.
Initiative $388.69 $388.69 $396.79
The Nanoscale Science and Engineering (NSE) Group coordinates
the NNI activities at NSF. The NSF investment
will be expanded to develop and strengthen critical fields and to establish the
science and engineering infrastructure and workforce needed to exploit the opportunities
presented by new capabilities. NSF supports fundamental knowledge creation, education
and infrastructure across all disciplinary areas at the nanoscale. Nine
networks for research, education and user facilities will be operating in 2009.
The Major Research Instrumentation Program and other programs will continue
to support the creation of smaller academic nanoscale science and engineering
FY 2009 request is $431 million, which is less than the FY 2008 estimate in the
current plan, which includes congressionally directed funds (see Table
I-9). Since DOD is a mission-oriented agency, its nanotechnology programs
are simultaneously focused on scientific and technical merit and potential relevance
to DOD. The overall objective for DOD is to discover and exploit unique phenomena
at material structures in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers to enable novel applications
enhancing war fighter and battle systems capabilities. The principal DOD participants
in the NNI are the Directorate for Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E),
the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Air Force, the Army
and the Navy. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the U.S. Army Medical
Research and Materiel Command and the DOD Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) program
are evaluating nanotechnology as an investment area. DOD supports nanoscale science and technology
in order to meet the national security mission. The DOD structures its S&T
investment into basic research (“6.1”), applied research (“6.2”) and advanced
technology development (“6.3”); the latter two focus on transitioning science
discovery into innovative technology.
Department of Energy (DOE)
The FY 2009 request is $311 million, a $60 million
increase. The FY 2009 request includes a substantial increase in funding for research
at the nanoscale for activities related to the solar energy, hydrogen fuel, advanced
nuclear energy systems, fundamental studies of materials at the nanoscale, instrumentation
for characterizing materials at the nanoscale, and research relevant to environmental
and ecological aspects of nanomaterials. In addition, the FY 2009 request includes a large
investment for all five Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC). Support for
fundamental scientific research on nanoscale phenomena will be by grant programs
and DOE National Laboratory research efforts.
Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and
total FY 2009 request by the Health and Human Services (HHS) department is $232
million, which would support nanotechnology activities in NIH and NIOSH.
FY 2009 NIH request is $226 million, the same as the 2008 estimate. NIH has several roadmap initiatives.
NIH’s priority for nanotechnology research continues to be creating novel
diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and devices, and operating research capabilities
to understand fundamental biomedical mechanisms. A consortium of 17 NIH institutes
re-released the solicitation, “Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for Biology and
Medicine,” both for regular research grants and feasibility projects. Large centers
and related programs at the NCI, NHLBI, and Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative will
continue in 2009. The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
issued in 2006 a request for applications (RFA) to encourage research leading
to the development of nanostructured dental composite materials. There is a continued
ramp-up of nanotechnology R&D funding for programs including implementing
the Nanomedicine Roadmap Initiative, the National Cancer Institute’s Nanotechnology
Platform Partnerships and Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, the National
Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Programs of Excellence in Nanotechnology, and
the Nanotechnology Program Area at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging
The FY 2009 NIOSH request is $6 million, unchanged from the previous year. The Institute
will operate the Center of Excellence for Nanotechnology Research, with the role of coordinating nanotechnology-related
activities across the institute and addressing critical occupational health issues.
NIOSH will continue to develop partnerships with stakeholders and other organizations
to enable the translation of agency activities into
appropriate workplace practices. NIOSH will establish a suite of instruments and
protocols for characterizing nanomaterials in the workplace environment.
This budget will allow intramural and extramural projects targeted to addressing
critical research gaps around occupational safety and health of nanotechnology
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
The FY 2009 NASA request for nanotechnology programs
is approximately $19 million, an increase of $1 million from the FY 2008 estimate
(see Table I-9). The budget reflects the competition
with other NASA priorities. In addition to basic nanoscience and nanotechnology
research, NASA plans to invest in various application areas. The basic NASA nanoscience
program includes bio-molecular systems research, which is a joint NASA/NCI (National
Cancer Institute) initiative. The Office of Advanced Technology Program integrates
nanotechnology development in three areas: (1) Materials and structures, (2) Nanoelectronics
and computing, and (3) Sensors and spacecraft components. A major focus at NASA
is to advance and exploit the zone of convergence between nanotechnology, biotechnology,
and information technology. Areas to be emphasized include: ultrahigh strength
and multi-functional materials; high density, low power electronics; ultra-small
and sensitive sensors; and highly miniaturized spacecraft systems (from microelectromechanical
systems (MEMS) to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)).
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
FY 2009 NIST request is $110 million, a $21 million increase (see Table
I-9). The Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST, Gaithersburg campus) will focus on collaborative nanotechnology research
on cost-effective manufacturing of products made with components the size of atoms
and molecules. Additional foci at NIST include the development of standard reference
materials for nanotechnology and research related to nanomanufacturing, as well
as nanoelectonics. NIST has a large range of collaborations with industry.
National Nanomanufacturing and Nanometrology Facility (N3F) was developed
at NIST to support the development of new infrastructural metrology and standards
for U.S. nanotechnology efforts through centralized access to NIST’s nanometrology
and nanofabrication resources, including the facilities of the Advanced Measurement
Laboratory and NIST’s nanometrology experts. Several new programs are developing physical standards
and measurement methods for nanoparticles and accelerating their use in new classes
of materials, as well as assessing environmental impact.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
FY 2009 request is $15 million, a $5 million increase. The agency is expanding
its research program on potential environmental implications of nanotechnology.
In line with EPA’s Nanotechnology White Paper (2007), this program includes intramural
research within EPA’s Office of Research and Development, as well as the extramural
program that has been in place for several years. EPA has launched a collaborative
process to design a Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program for voluntary reporting
of nanomaterials production under the provisions of the Toxic Substances Control
will continue to focus the majority of its research in 2009, as in 2008, on health
and environmental implications of nanomaterials. EPA will increase its efforts
in the area of risk assessment and risk management needs for nanomaterials. Finally,
EPA will research nanoscale technology as potential solutions to environmental
Food and Drug
will be addressing scientific and policy concerns and issues related to nanotechnology
use for the entire spectrum of FDA-regulated products under the auspices of the
recently established FDA Nanotechnology Task Force and Nanotechnology Interest
Group (NTIG), which is comprised of scientists qualified to provide input on product
development. Under a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), FDA, NIH (NCI)
and NIST have agreed to collaborate, share know-how and data on particle characterization
and standards development.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA:
CSREES and FS)
FY 2009 request is approximately $8 million ($3 million for Cooperative State
Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), and $6 million for Forest
Service (FS)), overall about $3 million under the FY 2008 estimate. USDA conducts
its research both extramurally through the partnership between the CSREES, the
Land Grant Universities (LGUs) and SBIR, and in-house at Agriculture Research
Service (ARS) national laboratories. The CSREES also provides leadership and financial
support for education and outreach in all the states and territories of the United States through the LGUs.
USDA nanotechnology program will continue in 2008 through its Nanotechnology Research
Initiative for extramural competitive research and education grants. The development
of nanotechnology-based sensors for application in the food industry and agriculture
is also a priority, and will similarly expand. The Forest Service will focus on
applications of nanotechnology to enhanced utilization of forest resources and
research on low-cost forest product feedstocks for nanomanufacturing. The Forest
Service will carry research to determine the basic nanoscale cell wall architecture
of wood and bark, wood-binder interaction, utilization of nano-carbon materials
recovered from gasification of woody biomass, as well as characterization of nanoscale
structures of chemically and physically altered wood fiber cell wall surfaces.
Department of Justice (DOJ)
In FY 2009 the budget request for the DOJ is about $2 million.
The DOJ National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has two separate project areas that
incorporate nanotechnology—DNA Research and Development, and Chemical and Biological
Defense. The DNA Research and Development
program will continue basic research as well as the demonstration of chip-based
or micro-device technologies to analyze DNA in forensic applications. Nanotechnology
has or will be a significant part of the device under development that will eventually
be integrated into the current crime laboratory processes and protocols to analyze
forensic DNA samples. The Chemical and Biological Defense program is developing
a wearable, low-cost device to provide warning of exposure to unanticipated chemical
and biological hazards in sufficient time for its wearer to take effective protective
Department of Transportation (DOT: FHWA)
Federal Highway Administration budget of about $1.0 million in FY 2009 is supporting
research aimed at improving fundamental understanding of the structure and properties
of highway construction materials at the nanoscale, e.g., the use of atomic
force microscopy to characterize the morphology of asphaltenes, which are the
nanoparticle component of asphalt. The FHWA, in collaboration with the University of
Connecticut and W.R. Grace, Inc., and with support from a NSF grant
will investigate the nanoscale mechanisms controlling hydration and setting of
Portland cement concrete.
Table 2. Key NNI R&D user facilities and
NSF – nine networks
National Nanofabrication Infrastructure Network
(NNIN) – 13 nodes (user facilities)
Cornell University –central node
for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN) – 7 nodes (user facilities)
Purdue University – central node
Nanomanufacturing Network (NNN)
University of Mass., Amherst – central node
in Society Network (NCN)
– central node
Nanoscale Center for Learning and Teaching
Northwestern University –main node
Informal Science Education (NISE)
Museum of Science Boston - main node
Science and Engineering Centers (NSEC)
University of Columbia- main node
Science and Engineering Centers (MRSECs)
for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEIN)
DOE – one network of five user
for Functional Nanomaterials
for Integrated Nanotechnologies
Sandia NL and Los Almos NL
for Nanophase Materials Sciences
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
for Nanoscale Materials
Argonne National Laboratory
for Molecular Foundry
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
NIH - four networks
Program of Excellence in Nanotechnology
of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence
Characterization Laboratory (user facilities)
NIST – one user facility
for Nanoscale Science and Technology
author is Senior Advisor to the National Science Foundation (NSF), and key architect
of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. The views expressed in this paper are
not necessarily those of NSF.
agencies with budgets dedicated to nanotechnology R&D are: U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (USDA/CSREES);
Forest Service (USDA/FS); Department of Defense (DOD); Department of Energy (DOE);
Department of Homeland Security (DHS); Department of Justice (DOJ); Department
of Transportation (DOT); Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA); National Institute of Standards and Technology
(DOC/NIST); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (HHS/CDC/NIOSH); National Institutes of Health
(HHS/NIH); and National Science Foundation (NSF). Other participating agencies
are: Bureau of Industry and Security (DOC/BIS); Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC); Department of Education; Department of Labor (DOL); Department of State
(DOS); Department of the Treasury; Food and Drug Administration (HHS/FDA); International
Trade Commission (ITC); Intelligence Technology Innovation Center (ITIC); Nuclear
Regulatory Commission (NRC); U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); and U.S. Patent and
Trademark Office (DOC/USPTO).