As used in these reports, R&D
refers to research and development activities in the sciences and engineering
as well as R&D facilities. The definitions below are used by the National
Science Foundation, the Office of Management and Budget, and federal agencies
in reporting R&D funding data.
Research is systematic study directed
toward more complete scientific knowledge or understanding of the subject studied.
The federal government classifies research as either basic or applied according
to the objective of the sponsoring agency.
- In basic research
the objective is to gain knowledge or understanding of phenomena without specific
applications in mind.
- In applied research the objective is to
gain knowledge or understanding necessary for meeting a specific need.
is the systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained from research for
the production of materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design, development,
and improvement of prototypes and new processes. It excludes quality control,
routine product testing, and production.
R&D funding normally includes
those personnel, program supervision, and administrative support costs directly
associated with R&D activities. Laboratory equipment is also included. Defense
R&D also includes testing, evaluation, prototype development, and other activities
which precede actual production.
Funding for R&D facilities
includes construction, repair, or alteration of physical plant (reactors, wind
tunnels, particle accelerators, or laboratories) used in the conduct of R&D.
It also includes capital (major) equipment used in the conduct of R&D.