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Life sciences/Neuroscience/Neurophysiology/Neurotransmission/Neuromodulation/Optogenetics

Work by Viviana Gradinaru, the 2020 grand prize winner of the Science & PINS Prize for Neuromodulation, could also target the nervous system outside the brain and spinal column.

The prize recognizes the development of a noninvasive deep brain stimulation technique via light-controlled neurons.

Meaghan Creed is the winner of the Science & PINS Prize for Neuromodulation for research that helps make sense of the biology underlying addiction.
The system might someday be applied to prosthetics to mimic human skin’s ability to feel sensation.
Combining the use of light and genetics to control the behavior of cells in living tissue, optogenetics may lead to a more precise understanding of the brain's hugely complex neural network.