To make decisions, societies rely on knowledge and multiple perspectives. Policies both within and outside science should be informed by the best available evidence. Science alone cannot translate knowledge into viable policy options; other factors include societal norms and cultural values.
One aspect of science policy is advancing the practice of science: How do we continually improve scientific methods, mechanisms, and outputs to increase the value of science to society? Another aspect of science policy is providing the best available scientific evidence to policymakers, community leaders, and citizens. How can we most effectively provide scientific evidence that informs policy? What are the roles for scientists as individuals and for the scientific enterprise as a whole in the policy landscape? What emerging and established areas of science are essential to future policy decisions?