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R&D Funding Breakdown of Legislation - Authorization vs. Appropriation

Legislative text can be confusing – when one sees a dollar sign in a bill it doesn’t necessarily mean that that amount of money is available for the project. On occasion funding is appropriated directly – and the money is allowed to be pulled from the Treasury once the bill is signed into law. In most cases, however, language in a bill may not disburse so much as set the funding cap, also known as authorizing, this practice generated the funding policy for a project, but the actual funds need to be appropriated at a later date.

To help with understanding what is actually funded, we provide a funding breakdown of several recent pieces of legislation that contain R&D line items, identifying which items are appropriated or authorized, for how much, and how that will impact the upcoming fiscal year.  


CHIPS and Science Act | Authorization-Appropriation Explainer | Public Law Text

Inflation Reduction Act | Authorization-Appropriation Explainer | Public Law Text



Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act | Authorization-Appropriation ExplainerPublic Law Text