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Just a few years ago, the scientific consensus was that humans and Neandertals were completely separate species who probably didn't interbreed. But the sequencing of the Neandertal genome has change that position; we now know that early humans who left Africa interbred with Neandertals because traces of them can be found in the genes of modern day humans with Asian and European ancestry.
Using original drawings by artist and AAAS member Lynn Feldman, the story of the sequencing of the Neandertal genome is retold for those with or without a science background. Feldman hopes scientists might consider utilizing this type of storytelling in their efforts to communicate to the public.
Science Special Issue: The Neandertal Genome
Science: Modern Humans 10, Neandertals 1
Learn more about what differentiates humans from Neanderthals in this audio slideshow about fossils.