Eyes on Nigeria: Communal Conflict

Overview
Forced Evictions
Conflict in the Niger Delta
Communal Conflict
Industrial Gas Flaring
Petrochemical Spills
Conclusion

I. Introduction

Plateau State, in central Nigeria, has been the site of communal conflict for the past decade. In January 2010, violence flared in the city of Jos (Figure 3.1) between Muslims and Christians, lasting four days and resulting in several hundred deaths, burned homes, and other destroyed structures, according to human rights groups. At the request of AI-USA, AAAS sought to assess the extent of damage in the region by analyzing two satellite images of the area, the first from June 12, 2007 and the second from January 27, 2010, just five days after the conflict.

Figure 3.1: Map of Nigeria

3-1

II. Results

AAAS obtained two high-resolution satellite images of Jos to enable the analysis. The baseline image was collected on June 12, 2007 by DigitalGlobe, Inc.’s QuickBird satellite, while the image used for the damage assessment was collected on January 27, 2010 by its WorldView-2 satellite. Damage was spread over a roughly one square kilometer area and generally covered multiple city blocks (Figure 3.2). Figure 3.3 depicts five locations where damage to building structures was visible. In each area, several clusters of structures that appear intact in the earlier image do not have roofs in the later image. When coupled with media reports, the images suggest that fire likely contributed to the collapsed roofs. Figures 3.4 to 3.8 provide the “before” and “after” images of several areas of the city where damage was observed.

Figure 3.2: Areas of Observed Damage to Structures, January 2010

Damage results indicate that nearly an entire square kilometer (0.911 square kilometers) of the city had been damaged or destroyed in 16 locations by January 2010. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
Damage results indicate that nearly an entire square kilometer (0.911 square kilometers) of the city had been damaged or destroyed in 16 locations by January 2010. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.3: Figure Locations, January 2010

Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.4.1: Subset of Jos Pre-Conflict

This June 2007 image shows an intact area of Jos. Lat: 9.9397, Long: 8.8831. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
This June 2007 image shows an intact area of Jos. Lat: 9.9397, Long: 8.8831. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.4.2: Subset of Jos Post-Conflict

In the January 2010 image, a roughly 120,000 square meter section of structures has been damaged, as seen by the exposed interior walls. Lat: 9.9397, Long: 8.8831. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
In the January 2010 image, a roughly 120,000 square meter section of structures has been damaged, as seen by the exposed interior walls. Lat: 9.9397, Long: 8.8831. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.5.1: Subset of Jos Pre-Conflict

Although slightly obscured by cloud cover, structures in this June 2007 image are intact. Lat: 9.9308, Long: 8.8986. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
Although slightly obscured by cloud cover, structures in this June 2007 image are intact. Lat: 9.9308, Long: 8.8986. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.5.2: Subset of Jos Post-Conflict

Further evidence of burning is apparent in the January 2010 image. This damage zone encompasses an estimated 158,000 square meter (0.158 square kilometer) area. Lat: 9.9308, Long: 8.8986. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
Further evidence of burning is apparent in the January 2010 image. This damage zone encompasses an estimated 158,000 square meter (0.158 square kilometer) area. Lat: 9.9308, Long: 8.8986. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.6.1: Subset of Jos Pre-Conflict

In 2007, another area of Jos is untouched by violence. Lat: 9.9314, Long: 8.9031. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
In 2007, another area of Jos is untouched by violence. Lat: 9.9314, Long: 8.9031. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.6.2: Subset of Jos Post-Conflict

By January 2010, many buildings have likely been burned, as indicated by the large concentration of exposed interior walls in a compact region along several adjacent streets. Lat: 9.9314, Long: 8.9031. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
By January 2010, many buildings have likely been burned, as indicated by the large concentration of exposed interior walls in a compact region along several adjacent streets. Lat: 9.9314, Long: 8.9031. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.7.1: Subset of Jos Pre-Conflict

Another area of Jos appears intact in June 2007. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
Another area of Jos appears intact in June 2007. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.7.2: Subset of Jos Post-Conflict

By January 2010, widespread destruction is visible in this area, as indicated by the exposed roofs. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
By January 2010, widespread destruction is visible in this area, as indicated by the exposed roofs. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.7.1 (Zoomed): Subset of Jos Pre-Conflict

A subset of Figure 3.7 is shown in greater detail here in 2007. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
A subset of Figure 3.7 is shown in greater detail here in 2007. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.7.2 (Zoomed): Subset of Jos Post-Conflict

The interior walls of these buildings are exposed in the 2010 image, suggesting the roofs were destroyed by fire. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
The interior walls of these buildings are exposed in the 2010 image, suggesting the roofs were destroyed by fire. Lat: 9.9231, Long: 8.9100. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.8.1: Subset of Jos Pre-Conflict

A portion of the city appears intact in this June 2007 image. Lat: 9.889, Long: 8.884. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
A portion of the city appears intact in this June 2007 image. Lat: 9.889, Long: 8.884. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

Figure 3.8.2: Subset of Jos Post-Conflict

By January 2010, probable evidence of burning can be seen. While most damage appears along the northern road, several other areas in the image reveal damage to structures. Lat: 9.889, Long: 8.884. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.
By January 2010, probable evidence of burning can be seen. While most damage appears along the northern road, several other areas in the image reveal damage to structures. Lat: 9.889, Long: 8.884. Image © 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.

III. Conclusion

High-resolution imagery analysis of Jos, Nigeria revealed widespread damage to buildings across the city. Figures 3.4 to 3.8 depict portions of the city that appear affected by the January 2010 conflict. Damaged structures were without roofs in the post-conflict images, which may have been the result of fire. Analysis of the January 2010 conflict concludes that nearly an entire square kilometer of the city spread across 16 locations was damaged or destroyed during the conflict. Violence in and around Jos has continued since this analysis. AI-USA and AAAS will continue to monitor the region.


A PDF of Eyes on Nigeria: Technical Report is available here.