Newcomb Cleveland Prize Recipients

2016 Recipient

The 2016 Newcomb Cleveland Prize was awarded to Robert Gütig for his outstanding research article "Spiking neurons can discover predictive features by aggregate-label learning," published in Science 4 March 2016.

To discover relevant clues for survival, an organism must bridge the gap between the short time periods when a clue occurs and the potentially long waiting times after which feedback arrives. This so-called temporal credit-assignment problem is also a major challenge in machine learning. Gütig developed a representation of the responses of spiking neurons, whose derivative defines the direction along which a neuron's response changes most rapidly. By using a learning rule that follows this development, the temporal credit-assignment problem can be solved by training a neuron to match its number of output spikes to the number of clues. The same learning rule endows unsupervised neural networks with powerful learning capabilities. The paper has considerable significance both for neuroscience and for machine learning. For neuroscience, it presents an intriguing and testable hypothesis about communication within the brain. For machine learning, the algorithm developed is demonstrated in the paper to have considerable power.

Past Recipients

Note: No award given in 1942-1945, 1948, 1973, 1975, or 1976.
2015
Bi-Chang Chen, Wesley R. Legant, Kai Wang, Lin Shao, Daniel E. Milkie, Michael W. Davidson, Chris Janetopoulos, Xufeng S. Wu, John A. Hammer III, Zhe Liu, Brian P. English, Yuko Mimori-Kiyosue, Daniel P. Romero, Alex T. Ritter, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Lillian Fritz-Laylin, R. Dyche Mullins, Diana M. Mitchell, Joshua N. Bembenek, Anne-Cecile Reymann, Ralph Böhme, Stephan W. Grill, Jennifer T. Wang, Geraldine Seydoux, U. Serdar Tulu, Daniel P. Kiehart, and Eric Betzig for the research article "Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution," published in Science 24 October 2014, pp. 439.
2014
Lulu Xie, Hogyi Kang,Qiwu Xu, Michael J. Chen, Yonghong Liao, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, John O’Donnell, Daniel J. Christensen, Charles Nicholson, Jeffrey J. Iliff ,Takahiro Takano, Rashid Deane, and Maiken Nedergaard for the report "Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain," published in Science 18 October 2013, pp. 373-377.
2013
Travis A. Jarrell, Yi Wang, Adam E. Bloniarz, Christopher A. Brittin, Meng Xu, J. Nichol Thomson, Donna G. Albertson, David H. Hall, and Scott W. Emmons for the research article "The Connectome of a Decision-Making Neural Network," published in Science 27 July 2012 pp. 437-444.
2012
Vincent Mourik, Kun Zuo, Sergey M. Frolov, Sébastien R. Plissard, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, and Leo P. Kouwenhoven for the report “Signatures of Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Superconductor-Semiconductor Nanowire Devices,” published in Science 25 May 2012, pp. 1003-1007.
2011
Waseem S. Bakr, Amy Peng, M. Eric Tai, Ruichao Ma, Jonathan Simon, Jonathon Isaiah Gillen, Simon Fölling, Lode Pollet, and Markus Greiner for the research article “Probing the Superfluid-to-Mott Insulator Transition at the Single-Atom Level,” published in Science 30 July 2010, pp. 547-550.
2010
Richard E. Green, Johannes Krause, Adrian W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, Heng Li, Weiwei Zhai, Markus Hsi-Yang Fritz, Nancy F. Hansen, Eric Y. Durand, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Hernán A. Burbano, Jeffrey M. Good, Rigo Schultz, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Anne Butthof, Barbara Höber, Barbara Höffner, Madlen Siegemund, Antje Weihmann, Chad Nusbaum, Eric S. Lander, Carsten Russ, Nathaniel Novod, Jason Affourtit, Michael Egholm, Christine Verna, Pavao Rudan, Dejana Brajkovic, Željko Kucan, Ivan Gušic, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Liubov V. Golovanova, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Javier Fortea, Antonio Rosas, Ralf W. Schmitz, Philip L. F. Johnson, Evan E. Eichler, Daniel Falush, Ewan Birney, James C. Mullikin, Montgomery Slatkin, Rasmus Nielsen, Janet Kelso, Michael Lachmann, David Reich, and Svante Pääbo for the research article “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome,” published in Science 7 May 2010, pp. 653-776.
2009
Paul Kalas, James R. Graham, Eugene Chiang, Michael P. Fitzgerald, Mark Clampin, Edwin S. Kite, Karl Stapelfeldt, Christian Marois, and John Krist for the research article “Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth,” published in Science 28 November 2008, pp. 1345-1348 and
Christian Marois, Bruce Macintosh, Travis Barman, B. Zuckerman, Inseok Song, Jennifer Patience, David Lafrenière, and René Doyon for the research article “Direct Imaging of Multiple Planets Orbiting the Star HR 8799,” published in Science 28 November 2008, pp. 1348-1352.
2008
Anoop Kumar, James W. Godwin, Phillip B. Gates, A. Acely Garza-Garcia, and Jeremy P. Brockes for the research article “Molecular Basis for the Nerve Dependence of Limb Regeneration in an Adult Vertebrate,” published in Science 2 November 2007, pp. 772-777.
2007
Hani M. El-Kaderi, Joseph R. Hunt, José L. Mendoza-Cortés, Adrien P. Côté, Robert E. Taylor, Michael O’Keeffe, and Omar M. Yaghi for the report “Designed Synthesis of 3D Covalent Organic Frameworks,” published in Science on 13 April 2007, pp. 268-272.
2006
Jason R. Petta, Alexander C. Johnson, Jacob M. Taylor, Edward A. Laird, Amir Yacoby, Mikhail D. Lukin, Charles M. Marcus, Micah P. Hanson, and Arthur C. Gossard for the research article “Coherent Manipulation of Coupled Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots,” published in Science 30 September 2005, pp. 2180-2184.
2005
David D. Awschalom, Yuichiro K. Kato, Roberto C. Myers, and Arthur C. Gossard for the research article “Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors,” published in Science 10 December 2004, pp. 1910-1913.
2004
Brian Kuhlman, Gautam Dantas, Gregory C. Ireton, Gabriele Varani, Barry L. Stoddard, and David Baker for the research article “Design of a Novel Globular Protein Fold with Atomic-Level Accuracy,” published in Science 21 November 2003, pp. 1364-1368.
2003
Thomas A. Volpe, Catherine Kidner, Ira M. Hall, Grace Teng, Shiv I.S. Grewal, and Robert A. Martienssen for the research article “Regulation of Heterochromatic Silencing and Histone H3 Lysine-9 Methylation by RNAi,” published in Science 13 September 2002, pp. 1833-1837 and
Ira M. Hall, Gurumurthy D. Shankaranarayana, Ken-ichi Noma, Nabieh Ayoub, Amikam Cohen, and Shiv I.S. Grewal for the research article “Establishment and Maintenance of a Heterochromatin Domain,” published in Science 27 September 2002, pp. 2232-2236.
2002
Mariana Lagos-Quintana, Reinhard Rauhut, Winfried Lendeckel, and Thomas Tuschl for the report “Identification of Novel Genes Coding for Small Expressed RNAs,” published in Science 26 October 2001, pp. 853-858;
Nelson C. Lau, Lee P. Lim, Earl G. Weinstein, and David P. Bartel for the report “An Abundant Class of Tiny RNAs with Probable Regulatory Roles in Caenorhabditis elegans,” published in Science 26 October 2001, 858-862; and
Rosalind C. Lee and Victor Ambros for the report “An Extensive Class of Small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans,” published in Science 26 October 2001, pp. 862-864.
2001
Nenad Ban, Poul Nissen, Jeffrey Hansen, Peter B. Moore, and Thomas A. Steitz for the research article “The Complete Atomic Structure of the Large Ribosomal Subunit at 2.4 Å Resolution,” published in Science 11 August 2000, pp. 905-920;
Poul Nissen, Jeffrey Hansen, Nenad Ban, Peter B. Moore, and Thomas A. Steitz for the research article “The Structural Basis for Ribosome Activity in Peptide Bond Synthesis,” published in Science 11 August 2000, pp. 920-930; and
Marat M. Yusupov, Gulnara Gh. Yusupova, Albion Baucom, Kate Lieberman, Thomas N. Earnest, J.H.D. Cate, and Harry F. Noller for the research article “Crystal Structure of the Ribosome at 5.5 Å Resolution,” published in Science 4 May 2001, pp. 883-896.
2000
Mark D. Adams, Susan E. Celniker, Gerald M. Rubin, and J. Craig Venter for the review “The Genome Sequence of Drosophilia melanogaster,” published in Science 24 March 2000, pp. 2185-2195.
1999
Norman Murray and Matthew Holman for the research article “The Origin of Chaos in the Outer Solar System,” published in Science 19 March 1999, pp. 1877-1881.
1998
Declan A. Doyle, João Morais Cabral, Richard A. Pfuetzner, Anling Kuo, Jacqueline M. Gulbis, Steven L. Cohen, Brian T. Chait, and Roderick MacKinnon for the research article “The Structure of the Potassium Channel: Molecular Basis of K+ Conduction and Selectivity,” published in Science 3 April, 1998, pp. 69-77 and
Roderick MacKinnon, Steven L. Cohen, Anling Kuo, Alice Lee, and Brian T. Chait for the report “Structural Conservation in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Potassium Channels,” published in Science 3 April 1998, pp. 106-109.
1997
Nicholas C. Wrighton, Francis X. Farrell, Ray Chang, Arun K. Kashyap, Francis Barbone, Linda S. Mulcahy, Dana L. Johnson, Ronald W. Barrett, Linda K. Jolliffe, and William J. Dower for the research article “Small peptides as Potent Mimetics of the Protein Hormone Erythropoietin,” published in Science 26 July 1996, pp. 458-463 and
Oded Livnah, Enrico A. Stura, Dana L. Johnson, Steven A. Middleton, Linda S. Mulcahy, Nicholas C. Wrighton, William J. Dower, Linda K. Jolliffe, and Ian A. Wilson for the research article “Functional Mimicry of a Protein Hormone by a Peptide Agonist: The EPO receptor Complex at 2.8 Å,” published in Science 26 July 1996, pp. 464-471.
1996
Michael H. Anderson, Jason R. Ensher, Michael R. Matthews, Carl E. Wieman, and Eric A. Cornell for the report "Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor," published in Science 14 July 1995, pp. 198-201 and
Yu Feng, Christopher C. Broder, Paul E. Kennedy, and Edward A. Berger for the report "HIV-1 Entry Cofactor: Functional cDNA Cloning of a Seven-Transmembrane, G Protein-Coupled Receptor," Science 10 May 1996, pp. 872-877.
1995
Georg Halder, Patrick Callaerts, and Walter J. Gehring for the research article "Induction of Ectopic Eyes by Targeted Expression of the eyeless Gene in Drosophila," published in Science 24 March 1995, 1788-1792.
1994
Michael F. Crommie, Christopher P. Lutz, and Donald M. Eigler for the report "Confinement of Electrons to Quantum Corrals on a Metal Surface," published in Science 8 October 1993, pp. 218-220 and
Jerome Faist, Federico Capasso, Deborah L. Sivco, Carlo Sitori, Albert L. Hutchinson, and Alfred Y. Cho for the report "Quantum Cascade Laser," published in Science 22 April 1994, pp. 553-556.
1993
Michael J. Mahan, James M. Slauch, and John J. Mekalanos for the report "Selection of Bacterial Virulence Genes That Are Specifically Induced in Host Tissues," published in Science 29 January 1993, pp. 686-688.
1992
Paul D. Quay, Bronte Tilbrook, and C. S. Wong for the research article "Oceanic Uptake of Fossil Fuel CO2; Carbon-13 Evidence," published in Science 3 April 1992, pp. 74-79.
1991
Stephen P. Fodor, J. Leighton Read, Michael C. Pirrung, Lubert Stryer, Amy Tsai Lu, and Dennis Solas for the research article "Light-Directed, Spatially Addressable Parallel Chemical Synthesis," published in Science 15 February 1991, pp. 767-773.
1990
Margaret J. Geller and John P. Huchra for the article "Mapping the Universe," published in Science 17 November 1989, pp. 897-903.
1989
William H. Landschulz, Peter F. Johnson and Steven L. McKnight for the research article, "The Leucine Zipper: A Hypothetical Structure Common to a New Class of DNA Binding Proteins," published in Science 24 June 1988, pp. 1759-1764 and
William H. Landschulz, Peter F. Johnson and Steven L. McKnight for the research article, "The DNA Binding Domain of the Rat Liver Nuclear Protein C/EBP Is Bipartite," published in Science 31 March 1989, pp. 1681-1688.
1988
Margaret A. Tolbert, Michel J. Rossi, Ripudaman Malhotra, and David M. Golden for the report "Reaction of Chlorine Nitrate with Hydrogen Chloride and Water at Antarctic Stratospheric Temperatures," published in Science 27 November 1987, pp. 1258-1260.
1987
Mario Molina, Tai-Ly Tso, Luisa T. Molina, and Frank C.-Y. Wang for the research article "Antarctic Stratospheric Chemistry of Chlorine Nitrate, Hydrogen Chloride, and Ice: Release of Active Chlorine," published in Science 27 November 1987, pp. 1253-1257.
1986
Arthur J. Zaug and Thomas R. Cech for the research article "The Intervening Sequence RNA of Tetrahymena Is an Enzyme," published in Science 31 January 1986, pp. 470-475; 
Jeremy Nathans, Darcy Thomas, and David S. Hogness for the research article “Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments,” Science 11 April 1986, pp. 193-202; and
Jeremy Nathans, Thomas P. Piantanida, Roger L. Eddy, Thomas B. Shows, and David S. Hogness for the research article “Molecular genetics of inherited variation in human color vision,” published in Science 11 April 1986, pp. 203-210.
1985
James M. Hogle, Marie Chow, and David J. Filman for the research article "Three-Dimensional Structure of Poliovirus at 2.9 Å Resolution," published Science 27 September 1985, pp. 1358-1365.
1984
Sally M. Rigden, Thomas J. Ahrens, and Edward M. Stolper for the report "Densities of liquid silicates at high pressures," published in Science 30 November 1984, pp. 1071-1074.
1983
Allan C. Spradling and Gerald M. Rubin for the article "Transposition of cloned P Elements into Drosophila germ line chromosomes," published in Science 22 October 1982, pp. 341-347 and
Gerald M. Rubin and Allan C. Spradling for the article "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors," published in Science 22 October 1982, pp. 348-353.
1982
Dennis G. Kleid, Daniel Yansura, Barbara Small, Donald Dowbenko, Douglas M. Moore, Marvin J. Grubman, Peter D. McKercher, Donald O. Morgan, Betty H. Robertson, and Howard L. Bachrach for the report "Cloned Viral Protein Vaccine for Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Responses in Cattle and Swine," published in Science 4 December 1981, pp. 1125-1129.
1981
Robert Axelrod and William D. Hamilton for the article "The Evolution of Cooperation," published in Science 27 March 1981, pp. 1390-1396.
1980
F. N. Spiess, Ken C. Macdonald, T. Atwater, R. Ballard, A. Carranza, D. Cordoba, C. Cox, V. M. Diaz Garcia, J. Francheteau, J. Guerrero, J. Hawkins, R. Haymon, R. Hessler, J. Juteau, M. Kastner, R. Larson, B. Luyendyk, J. D. Macdougall, S. Miller, W. Normark, J. Orcutt, and C. Rangin for the article "East Pacific Rise: Hot Springs and Geophysical Experiments," published in Science 28 March 1980, pp. 1421-1433.
1979
Stanton J. Peale, Patrick M. Cassen, and Ray T. Reynolds for the report "Melting of Io by Tidal Dissipation," published in Science 2 March 1979, pp. 892-894.
1978
Eric I. Knudsen, Masakazu Konishi, and John D. Pettigrew for the report "Receptive Fields of Auditory Neurons in the Owl," published in Science 23 December 1977, pp. 1278-1280 and
Eric I. Knudsen and Masakazu Konishi for the report "A Neural Map of Auditory Space in the Owl," published in Science 19 May 1978, pp. 795-797.
1977
Viking Mission scientists for papers published in Science 27 August, 1 October, and 17 December 1976:
Gerald A. Soffen and C. W. Snyder for the report “The First Viking Mission to Mars,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 759-766;
Michael H. Carr, Harold Masursky, William A. Baum, Karl R. Blasius, Geoffrey A. Briggs, James A. Cutts, Thomas Duxbury, Ronald Greeley, John E. Guest, Bradford A. Smith, Laurence A. Soderblom, Joseph Veverka, and John B. Wellman for the report “Preliminary Results from the Viking Orbiter Imaging Experiment,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 766-776;
Crofton B. Farmer, Donald W. Davies, and Daniel D. LaPorte for the report “Viking: Mars Atmospheric Water Vapor Mapping Experiment—Preliminary Report of Results,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp.776-780;
Hugh H. Kieffer, Stillman C. Chase Jr., Ellis D. Miner, Frank Don Palluconi, Guido Münch, Gerry Neugebauer, and Terry Z. Martin for the report “Infrared Thermal Mapping of the Martian Surface and Atmosphere: First Results,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 780-786;
A. O. Nier, W. B. Hanson, A. Seiff, M. B. Mcelroy, N. W. Spencer, R. J. Duckett, T. C. D. Knight, and W. S. Cook for the report “Composition and Structure of the Martian Atmosphere: Preliminary Results from Viking 1,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 786-788;
S. L. Hess, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, T. E. Chamberlain, H. L. Cole, R. G. Dutton, G. C. Greene, W. E. Simon, and J. L. Mitchell for the report “Preliminary Meteorological Results on Mars from the Viking 1 Lander,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 788-791;
Thomas A. Mutch, Alan B. Binder, Friedrich O. Huck, Elliott C. Levinthal, Sidney Liebes Jr., Elliot C. Morris, William R. Patterson, James B. Pollack, Carl Sagan, and Glenn R. Taylor for the report “The Surface of Mars: The View from the Viking 1 Lander," published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 791-801;
Tobias Owen and K. Biemann for the report “Composition of the Atmosphere at the Surface of Mars: Detection of Argon-36 and Preliminary Analysis,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 801-803;
W. H. Michael Jr., R. H. Tolson, A. P. Mayo, W. T. Blackshear, G. M. Kelly, D. L. Cain, J. P. Brenkle, I. I. Shapiro, and R. D. Reasenberg for the report “Viking Lander Location and Spin Axis of Mars: Determination from Radio Tracking Data,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 803;
Benton C. Clark, Priestley Toulmin III, A. K. Baird, Klaus Keil, and Harry J. Rose for the report “Argon Content of the Martian Atmosphere at the Viking 1 Landing Site: Analysis by X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 804-805;
Richard W. Shorthill, Robert E. Hutton, Henry J. Moore II, Ronald F. Scott, and Cary R. Spitzer for the report “Physical Properties of the Martian Surface from the Viking 1 Lander: Preliminary Results,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 805-809;
H. Masursky and N. L. Crabill for the report “The Viking Landing Sites: Selection and Certification,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 809-812;
G. L. Tyler, D. B. Campbell, G. S. Downs, R. R. Green, and Henry J. Moore II for the report “Radar Characteristics of Viking 1 Landing Sites,” published in Science 27 August 1976, pp. 812-815;
Gerald A. Soffen for the report “Status of the Viking Missions,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 57-59;
B. Gentry Lee for the report “Mission Operations Strategy for Viking,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 59-62;
H. Masursky and N. L. Crabill for the report “Search for the Viking 2 Landing Site,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 62-68;
Michael B. McElroy and Yuk Ling Yung for the report “Isotopic Composition of the Martian Atmosphere,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 68-70;
Michael B. McElroy, Yuk Ling Yung, and Alfred O. Nier for the report “Isotopic Composition of Nitrogen: Implications for the Past History of Mars' Atmosphere,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 70-72;
K. Biemann, J. Oro, P. Toulmin III, L. E. Orgel, A. O. Nier, D. M. Anderson, P. G. Simmonds, D. Flory, A. V. Diaz, D. R. Rushneck, and J. A. Biller for the report “Search for Organic and Volatile Inorganic Compounds in Two Surface Samples from the Chryse Planitia Region of Mars,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 72-76;
K. Biemann, T. Owen, D. R. Rushneck, A. L. Lafleur, and D. W. Howarth for the report “The Atmosphere of Mars near the Surface: Isotope Ratios and Upper Limits on Noble Gases,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 76-78;
S. L. Hess, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, J. A. Ryan, J. E. Tillman, T. E. Chamberlain, H. L. Cole, R. G. Dutton, G. C. Greene, W. E. Simon, and J. L. Mitchell for the report “Mars Climatology from Viking 1 After 20 Sols,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 78-81;
Priestley Toulmin III, Benton C. Clark, A. K. Baird, Klaus Keil, and Harry J. Rose Jr. for the report “Preliminary Results from the Viking X-ray Fluorescence Experiment: The First Sample from Chryse Planitia, Mars,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 81-84;
R. B. Hargraves, D. W. Collinson, and C. R. Spitzer for the report “Viking Magnetic Properties Investigation: Preliminary Results,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 84-86;
Thomas A. Mutch, Raymond E. Arvidson, Alan B. Binder, Friedrich O. Huck, Elliott C. Levinthal, Sidney Liebes Jr., Elliot C. Morris, Dag Nummedal, James B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan for the report “Fine Particles on Mars: Observations with the Viking 1 Lander Cameras,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 87-91;
Richard W. Shorthill, Henry J. Moore II, Ronald F. Scott, Robert E. Hutton, Sidney Liebes Jr., and Cary R. Spitzer for the report “The "Soil" of Mars (Viking 1),” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 91-97;
Laurence A. Soderblom for the report “Viking Orbital Colorimetric Images of Mars: Preliminary Results,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 97-99;
Harold P. Klein, Norman H. Horowitz, Gilbert V. Levin, Vance I. Oyama, Joshua Lederberg, Alexander Rich, Jerry S. Hubbard, George L. Hobby, Patricia A. Straat, Bonnie J. Berdahl, Glenn C. Carle, Frederick S. Brown, and Richard D. Johnson for the report “The Viking Biological Investigation: Preliminary Results,” published in Science 1 October 1976, pp. 99-105;
Gerald A. Soffen for the report “Scientific Results of the Viking Missions,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1274-1276;
T. A. Mutch, S. U. Grenander, K. L. Jones, W. Patterson, R. E. Arvidson, E. A. Guinness, P. Avrin, C. E. Carlston, A. B. Binder, C. Sagan, E. W. Dunham, P. L. Fox, D. C. Pieri, F. O. Huck, C. W. Rowland, G. R. Taylor, S. D. Wall, R. Kahn, E. C. Levinthal, S. Liebes Jr., R. B. Tucker, E. C. Morris, J. B. Pollack, R. S. Saunders, and M. R. Wolf for the report “The Surface of Mars: The View from the Viking 2 Lander,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1277-1283;
Benton C. Clark, A. K. Baird, Harry J. Rose Jr., Priestley Toulmin III, Klaus Keil, Angelo J. Castro, Warren C. Kelliher, Catherine D. Rowe, and Peter H. Evans for the report “Inorganic Analyses of Martian Surface Samples at the Viking Landing Sites,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1283-1288;
A. K. Baird, Priestley Toulmin III, Benton C. Clark, Harry J. Rose Jr., Klaus Keil, Ralph P. Christian, and James L. Gooding for the report “Mineralogic and Petrologic Implications of Viking Geochemical Results From Mars: Interim Report,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1288-1293;
T. Owen, K. Biemann, D. R. Rushneck, J. E. Biller, D. W. Howarth, and A. L. Lafleur for the report “The Atmosphere of Mars: Detection of Krypton and Xenon,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1293-1295;
Michael B. McElroy, T. Y. Kong, Yuk Ling Yung, and Alfred O. Nier for the report “Composition and Structure of the Martian Upper Atmosphere: Analysis of Results from Viking,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1295-1298;
Alfred O. Nier and Michael B. McElroy for the report “Structure of the Neutral Upper Atmosphere of Mars: Results from Viking 1 and Viking 2,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1298-1300;
Alvin Seiff and Donn B. Kirk for the report “Structure of Mars' Atmosphere up to 100 Kilometers from the Entry Measurements of Viking 2,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1300-1303;
R. B. Hargraves, D. W. Collinson, R. E. Arvidson, and Cary R. Spitzer for the report “Viking Magnetic Properties Investigation: Further Results,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1303-1309;
Richard W. Shorthill, Henry J. Moore Ii, Robert E. Hutton, Ronald F. Scott, and Cary R. Spitzer for the report “The Environs of Viking 2 Lander,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1309-1318;
Don L. Anderson, Frederick K. Duennebier, Gary V. Latham, M. Fafi Toksöz, Robert L. Kovach, Tony C. D. Knight, Andrew R. Lazarewicz, Wayne F. Miller, Yosio Nakamura, and George Sutton for the report “The Viking Seismic Experiment,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1318-1321;
N. H. Horowitz, G. L. Hobby, and J. S. Hubbard for the report “The Viking Carbon Assimilation Experiments: Interim Report,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1321-1322;
Gilbert V. Levin and Patricia Ann Straat for the report “Viking Labeled Release Biology Experiment: Interim Results,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1322-1329;
James A. Cutts, Karl R. Blasius, Geoffrey A. Briggs, Michael H. Carr, Ronald Greeley, and Harold Masursky for the report “North Polar Region of Mars: Imaging Results from Viking 2,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1329-1337;
W. H. Michael Jr., A. P. Mayo, W. T. Blackshear, R. H. Tolson, G. M. Kelly, J. P. Brenkle, D. L. Cain, G. Fjeldbo, D. N. Sweetnam, R. B. Goldstein, P. E. MacNeil, R. D. Reasenberg, I. I. Shapiro, T. I. S. Boak III, M. D. Grossi, and C. H. Tang for the report “Mars Dynamics, Atmospheric and Surface Properties: Determination from Viking Tracking Data,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1337-1339;
Crofton B. Farmer, Donald W. Davies, and Daniel D. Laporte for the report “Mars: Northern Summer Ice Cap—Water Vapor Observations from Viking 2,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1339-1341;
Hugh H. Kieffer, Stillman C. Chase Jr., Terry Z. Martin, Ellis D. Miner, and Frank Don Palluconi for the report “Martian North Pole Summer Temperatures: Dirty Water Ice,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1341-1344;
Hugh H. Kieffer for the report “Soil and Surface Temperatures at the Viking Landing Sites,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1344-1346;
Hugh H. Kieffer, Philip R. Christensen, Terry Z. Martin, Ellis D. Miner, and Frank D. Palluconi for the report “Temperatures of the Martian Surface and Atmosphere: Viking Observation of Diurnal and Geometric Variations,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1346-1351; and
S. L. Hess, R. M. Henry, C. B. Leovy, J. L. Mitchell, J. A. Ryan, and J. E. Tillman for the report “Early Meteorological Results from the Viking 2 Lander,” published in Science 17 December 1976, pp. 1352-1353.
 
Prior to 1975 the Prize was awarded to the author(s) of noteworthy papers, representing an outstanding contribution to science, presented in a regular session, sectional or societal, during the AAAS Annual Meeting.
1974
Amos Nur for the paper “Origin of Velocity Changes before Earthquakes: The Dilatancy Diffusion Hypothesis and Its Confirmation.”
1972
Bruce Carlson for the paper "Morphogenetic Interactions between Skin and Underlying Tissues during Limb Regeneration."
1971
Alan Gelperin for the paper "Neural Control Systems of Underlying Insect Feeding Behavior."
1970
James W. Truman for the paper "The Eclosion Hormone: Its Release by the Brain and Its Action on the Central Nervous Systems of Silkmoths."
1969
Cornelia P. Channing for the paper "Control of Luteinization in Granulosa Cell Cultures."
1968
Joel L. Rosenbaum for the paper "Control of Protein Synthesis in Flagellar Growth."
1967
Edward O. Wilson for the paper "Recent Advances in Chemical Communication," and
Thomas Eisner for the paper "Cross-Specific Chemical Communication."
1966
Michael K. Reedy for the paper "Cross Bridges and Periods in Insect Flight Muscle."
1965
David S. Hogness for the paper "The Structure and Function of the DNA from Bacteriophage Lambda."
1964
John Papaconstantinou for the paper "Protein and Nucleic Acid Changes in the Differentiation of Lens Cells.”
1963
Jonathan W. Uhr for the paper "The Heterogeneity of the Immune Response.”
1962
J. F. Evernden and Garness H. Curtis for the paper "The Dating of Early Man and His Cultures by the Potassium-Argon Method.”
1961
Richard D. Alexander for the paper "The Role of Behavioral Study in Cricket Classification.”
1960
Halton C. Arp for the paper "The Stellar Content of Galaxies.”
1959
Edward Anders for the paper "Meteorites and Asteroids.”
1958
Jerzy Neyman and Elizabeth L. Scott for the paper "On Certain Stochastic Models of Population Dynamical Phenomena.”
1957
Martin Schwarzchild, J. B. Rogerson, and J. W. Evans for the paper "Solar Photographs from 80,000 Feet."
1956
Neal E. Miller for the paper "Learning and Performance Motivated by Direct Stimulation of the Brain,” and
James Olds for the paper "Effects of Hunger, Sex, and Tranquilizers on Localized Reward Systems in the Brain.”
1955
Seymour S. Cohen for the paper "Molecular Bases of the Parasitism of Some Bacterial Viruses.”
1954
Daniel H. Alpert for the paper "Experiments at Very Low Pressures.”
1953
Barry Commoner for the paper "Studies on the Biosynthesis of Tobacco Mosaic Virus.”
1952
A. M. Gleason for the paper “Natural Coordinate Systems.”
1951
J. Lawrence Kulp for the paper “Natural Radiocarbon Measurements.”
1950
Carroll M. Williams for the following papers:
William Van der Kloot and Carroll M. Williams “An experimental analysis of the spinning behavior of the Cecropia silkworm,”
Howard A. Schneiderman, Ned Feder, and Carroll M. Williams “The respiration of the Cecropia silkworm in the presence of high pressures of carbon monoxide,” and
Janet V. Passonneau and Carroll M. Williams “The moulting-fluid of the Cecropia silkworm.”
1949
Armin C. Braun for the paper "Thermal Inactivation Study on the Tumor-inducing Principle in Crown Gall.”
1947
Harrison S. Brown for the paper "Elements in Meteorites and the Earth's Origin.”
1946
T. M. Sonneborn, Winifred Jacobson, and Ruth V. Dippell for the paper “Paramecin 51, an antibiotic produced by Paramecium Aurelia; amounts released from killers and taken up by sensitives; conditions protecting sensitives,”
T. M. Sonneborn and Ruth V. Dippell for the paper “The significance of race 31 as a link between group A and B varieties of P. aurelia,” and
Quentin M. Geiman and Ralph W. McKee for the paper "Cultural Studies on the Nutrition of Malarial Parasites.”
1941
Dugald E. S. Brown, Frank H. Johnson, and Douglas A. Marsland for the paper “The reversible denaturation of enzymes as a determining factor in the reaction of biological systems to temperature and pressure” and
Frank H. Johnson, Dugald E. S. Brown, and Douglas A. Marsland for the paper “The mechanism of temperature and hydrostatic pressure reversal of narcosis in luminous bacteria.”
1940
Dennis R. Hoagland and Daniel I. Arnon for the paper "Availability of Nutrients with Special Reference to Physiological Aspects.”
1939
I. I. Rabi for the paper "Radio Frequency Spectra of Atoms and Molecules.”
1938
Norman R. F. Maier for the paper "Experimentally Produced Neurotic Behavior in the Rat.”
1937
Philip R. White for the paper "Root Pressure: An Unappreciated Force in Sap Movement.”
1936
Wendell M. Stanley for the paper "Chemical Studies of the Virus of Tobacco Mosaic.”
1935
P. W. Zimmerman and A. E. Hitchcock for the paper "The Initiation and Growth of Secondary Roots Induced by Growth Substances.”
1934
Vern O. Knudsen for the paper "The Absorption of Sound in Gases.”
1933
Reuben L. Kahn for the paper "Tissue Reactions in Immunity.”
1932
Henry Eyring for the paper "Quantum Mechanics of Conjugate Double Bonds.”
1931
Carl Caskey Speidel for the paper "Studies of Living Nerves II. Activities of Amoeboid Growth Cones, Sheath Cells and Myelin Segments, as Revealed by Prolonged Observation of Individual Fibers in Frog Tadpoles.”
1930
M. A. Tuve, L. R. Hafstad, and O. Dahl for the paper "Experiments with High Voltage Tubes.”
1929
Arthur J. Dempster for the paper “Reflection of Protons from Crystals.”
1928
Oliver Kamm for the paper "Hormones from the Pituitary Gland.”
1927
H. J. Muller for the paper "Effects of X-Radiation on Genes and Chromosomes.”
1926
George David Birkhoff for the paper "A Mathematical Critique of Some Physical Theories.”
1925
Dayton C. Miller for the paper "The Michelson-Morley Ether Drift Experiment, its History and Significance.”
1924
Edwin P. Hubble for the paper "Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae,” and
L. R. Cleveland for the papers “The ability of termites to live perhaps indefinitely on a diet of pure cellulose” and “The effects of starvation and oxygenation on the symbiosis between termites and their intestinal protozoa, together with the toxicity of oxygen for free-living and parasitic protozoa.”
1923
Leonard Eugene Dickson for the paper "On the Theory of Numbers and Generalized Quarternions.”
 
 
 

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